East Africa
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East Africa

Population

333,591,531

Area

5,908,725 km²

GDP total

$318,129.26 million

Countries

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.

5.51

Criminality Score

1st of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.96

Human Trafficking

6.61

Human Smuggling

6.22

Arms Trafficking

6.78

Flora Crimes

4.56

Fauna Crimes

5.17

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.17

Heroin Trade

3.89

Cocaine Trade

2.61

Cannabis Trade

5.61

Synthetic Drugs Trade

2.94

Criminal Actors

6.06

Mafia-Style Groups

4.33

Criminal Networks

6.56

State-Embedded Actors

7.00

Foreign Actors

6.33

3.51

State Resilience Score

4th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

3.67

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.61

International Cooperation

4.17

National Policies and Laws

4.56

Judicial System and Detention

3.56

Law Enforcement

3.72

Territorial Integrity

4.39

Anti-Money Laundering

4.11

Economic Regulatory Environment

3.72

Victim and Witness Support

1.78

Prevention

2.44

Non-State Actors

3.33

3.51 6.06 4.96 3.51 6.06 4.96

The East African region has the highest average criminality score of all five regions on the continent, with an average score of 5.51.

Indeed, six of the nine countries in the region appear in the top 20 highest-scoring countries for criminality, with Somalia and South Sudan leading the way in joint-fourth position, followed closely by Sudan, with the sixth highest criminality score in Africa. In the region, strong trends were identified in both criminal markets and criminal actors, as well as resilience. The region averages higher in terms of criminality (5.51) than the rest of the continent (4.97), with criminal markets at 4.96 (compared to Africa’s overall score of 4.68) and actors at 6.06 (where Africa averages 5.25). In line with other regions, criminal actors in East Africa drive up the overall criminality score. The most prevalent criminal markets in East Africa as a whole are for human trafficking, human smuggling and arms trafficking, each with average scores considerably higher than in the rest of Africa. While East Africa’s average criminal market score is actually lower than West Africa’s, its average criminal actor score of 6.06 is the highest of the five regions on the continent by a notable margin, driven predominantly by the influence of both criminal networks and state-embedded actors. In terms of resilience, East Africa is overall the second least resilient region (after Central Africa), with an average resilience score of 3.50, compared to the African average of 3.86. As is the case with many countries across the continent, resilience measures in this region are focused primarily on heavy security frameworks, at the expense of 'softer' response mechanisms.

Togo

Capital

Lomé

Population

7,889,094

Area

54,390 km²

Coastline Length

56 km

Landborder Length

1,880 km

GDP total

$5,300.21 million

GDP per capita

$671.84

GINI Index

43.1

5.57

Criminality Score

18th of 54 African countries

5th of 15 West Africa countries

Criminal market

5.00

Human Trafficking

6.00

Human Smuggling

3.00

Arms Trafficking

5.50

Flora Crimes

5.00

Fauna Crimes

7.00

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.00

Heroin Trade

3.00

Cocaine Trade

4.00

Cannabis Trade

6.50

Synthetic Drugs Trade

5.00

Criminal Actors

6.13

Mafia-Style Groups

1.00

Criminal Networks

7.50

State-Embedded Actors

8.00

Foreign Actors

8.00

4.04

State Resilience Score

23rd of 54 African countries

8th of 15 West Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

3.00

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.50

International Cooperation

6.50

National Policies and Laws

4.50

Judicial System and Detention

3.50

Law Enforcement

4.00

Territorial Integrity

4.00

Anti-Money Laundering

3.00

Economic Regulatory Environment

4.50

Victim and Witness Support

4.50

Prevention

4.00

Non-State Actors

4.50

4.04 6.13 5.00 4.04 6.13 5.00

Togo is ranked 18th in the Index, reflecting higher levels of organised crime in the country than in the majority of other African nations.

In line with the general trend in African countries, Togo’s criminal actors score is notably higher than its criminal markets score. Although no criminal market in Togo exerts a severe impact on society, there are nevertheless only two criminal markets that have a non-existent to minimal impact in the country. The criminal market that is most pervasive in the West African nation is the illicit fauna market, due to Togo’s prominent role as a transit country for the illegal trade in pangolin scales and elephant ivory. Furthermore, Togo acts as a transit country for cannabis and the increase in consumption of the drug in recent years is a worrying sign. Criminal networks, state-embedded actors and foreign criminal actors all have a severe influence in the country. These criminal actors are involved in a range of illicit markets, from drug trafficking to money laundering, and their activity is often aided by high levels of government corruption. In terms of resilience, Togo performed better than the African average, ranking 23rd. Although the government has made commitments to fighting organised crime, the effectiveness and sincerity of these measures remain to be proven. Lack of enforcement of laws, a culture of impunity and corruption, and porous borders were all noted as concerns by experts.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.