East Africa
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East Africa

Population

333,591,531

Area

5,908,725 km²

GDP total

$318,129.26 million

Countries

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.

5.51

Criminality Score

1st of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.96

Human Trafficking

6.61

Human Smuggling

6.22

Arms Trafficking

6.78

Flora Crimes

4.56

Fauna Crimes

5.17

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.17

Heroin Trade

3.89

Cocaine Trade

2.61

Cannabis Trade

5.61

Synthetic Drugs Trade

2.94

Criminal Actors

6.06

Mafia-Style Groups

4.33

Criminal Networks

6.56

State-Embedded Actors

7.00

Foreign Actors

6.33

3.51

State Resilience Score

4th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

3.67

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.61

International Cooperation

4.17

National Policies and Laws

4.56

Judicial System and Detention

3.56

Law Enforcement

3.72

Territorial Integrity

4.39

Anti-Money Laundering

4.11

Economic Regulatory Environment

3.72

Victim and Witness Support

1.78

Prevention

2.44

Non-State Actors

3.33

3.51 6.06 4.96 3.51 6.06 4.96

The East African region has the highest average criminality score of all five regions on the continent, with an average score of 5.51.

Indeed, six of the nine countries in the region appear in the top 20 highest-scoring countries for criminality, with Somalia and South Sudan leading the way in joint-fourth position, followed closely by Sudan, with the sixth highest criminality score in Africa. In the region, strong trends were identified in both criminal markets and criminal actors, as well as resilience. The region averages higher in terms of criminality (5.51) than the rest of the continent (4.97), with criminal markets at 4.96 (compared to Africa’s overall score of 4.68) and actors at 6.06 (where Africa averages 5.25). In line with other regions, criminal actors in East Africa drive up the overall criminality score. The most prevalent criminal markets in East Africa as a whole are for human trafficking, human smuggling and arms trafficking, each with average scores considerably higher than in the rest of Africa. While East Africa’s average criminal market score is actually lower than West Africa’s, its average criminal actor score of 6.06 is the highest of the five regions on the continent by a notable margin, driven predominantly by the influence of both criminal networks and state-embedded actors. In terms of resilience, East Africa is overall the second least resilient region (after Central Africa), with an average resilience score of 3.50, compared to the African average of 3.86. As is the case with many countries across the continent, resilience measures in this region are focused primarily on heavy security frameworks, at the expense of 'softer' response mechanisms.

eSwatini

Capital

Mbabane

Population

1,136,191

Area

17,200 km²

Landborder Length

546 km

GDP total

$4,703.79 million

GDP per capita

$4,139.96

GINI Index

51.5

3.49

Criminality Score

50th of 54 African countries

12th of 13 Southern Africa countries

Criminal market

3.35

Human Trafficking

4.00

Human Smuggling

3.00

Arms Trafficking

4.00

Flora Crimes

2.00

Fauna Crimes

2.00

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

3.00

Heroin Trade

4.00

Cocaine Trade

3.00

Cannabis Trade

6.00

Synthetic Drugs Trade

2.50

Criminal Actors

3.63

Mafia-Style Groups

2.00

Criminal Networks

5.50

State-Embedded Actors

3.00

Foreign Actors

4.00

2.96

State Resilience Score

37th of 54 African countries

11th of 13 Southern Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

3.50

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.50

International Cooperation

3.00

National Policies and Laws

4.00

Judicial System and Detention

3.00

Law Enforcement

3.00

Territorial Integrity

3.50

Anti-Money Laundering

4.00

Economic Regulatory Environment

2.00

Victim and Witness Support

2.50

Prevention

2.00

Non-State Actors

2.50

2.96 3.63 3.35 2.96 3.63 3.35

eSwatini ranks 50th in Africa for criminality, indicating that criminal actors and markets in the country are generally not as prevalent as in other African states.

There are concerns over human trafficking and arms trafficking, but eSwatini is primarily a transit country for these markets, especially to South Africa. In terms of drug markets, experts note the significant influence of the cannabis trade as having a negative impact on society. There are also concerns over the trafficking of heroin and cocaine in eSwatini. Violent crime is an area of concern in the country. Most criminal activity is perpetrated by small gangs with links to criminal organisations in South Africa and Mozambique. In terms of resilience, eSwatini is ranked 37th, despite its progress in the development of national policies and laws and international cooperation. The country is still facing severe challenges with regard to their judicial system and social protection measures. Experts consider other areas, such as the freedom in the economic regulatory environment and capacity of law enforcement, to be non-effective or extremely ineffective. Consequently, the country is ill equipped to deal with organised crime.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.