East Africa
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East Africa

Population

333,591,531

Area

5,908,725 km²

GDP total

$318,129.26 million

Countries

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.

5.51

Criminality Score

1st of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.96

Human Trafficking

6.61

Human Smuggling

6.22

Arms Trafficking

6.78

Flora Crimes

4.56

Fauna Crimes

5.17

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.17

Heroin Trade

3.89

Cocaine Trade

2.61

Cannabis Trade

5.61

Synthetic Drugs Trade

2.94

Criminal Actors

6.06

Mafia-Style Groups

4.33

Criminal Networks

6.56

State-Embedded Actors

7.00

Foreign Actors

6.33

3.51

State Resilience Score

4th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

3.67

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.61

International Cooperation

4.17

National Policies and Laws

4.56

Judicial System and Detention

3.56

Law Enforcement

3.72

Territorial Integrity

4.39

Anti-Money Laundering

4.11

Economic Regulatory Environment

3.72

Victim and Witness Support

1.78

Prevention

2.44

Non-State Actors

3.33

3.51 6.06 4.96 3.51 6.06 4.96

The East African region has the highest average criminality score of all five regions on the continent, with an average score of 5.51.

Indeed, six of the nine countries in the region appear in the top 20 highest-scoring countries for criminality, with Somalia and South Sudan leading the way in joint-fourth position, followed closely by Sudan, with the sixth highest criminality score in Africa. In the region, strong trends were identified in both criminal markets and criminal actors, as well as resilience. The region averages higher in terms of criminality (5.51) than the rest of the continent (4.97), with criminal markets at 4.96 (compared to Africa’s overall score of 4.68) and actors at 6.06 (where Africa averages 5.25). In line with other regions, criminal actors in East Africa drive up the overall criminality score. The most prevalent criminal markets in East Africa as a whole are for human trafficking, human smuggling and arms trafficking, each with average scores considerably higher than in the rest of Africa. While East Africa’s average criminal market score is actually lower than West Africa’s, its average criminal actor score of 6.06 is the highest of the five regions on the continent by a notable margin, driven predominantly by the influence of both criminal networks and state-embedded actors. In terms of resilience, East Africa is overall the second least resilient region (after Central Africa), with an average resilience score of 3.50, compared to the African average of 3.86. As is the case with many countries across the continent, resilience measures in this region are focused primarily on heavy security frameworks, at the expense of 'softer' response mechanisms.

Djibouti

Capital

Djibouti City

Population

958,920

Area

23,180 km²

Coastline Length

314 km

Landborder Length

528 km

GDP total

$1,965.98 million

GDP per capita

$2,050.21

GINI Index

41.6

3.73

Criminality Score

47th of 54 African countries

9th of 9 East Africa countries

Criminal market

3.45

Human Trafficking

6.00

Human Smuggling

7.00

Arms Trafficking

5.00

Flora Crimes

2.00

Fauna Crimes

4.00

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

1.00

Heroin Trade

2.50

Cocaine Trade

1.50

Cannabis Trade

4.00

Synthetic Drugs Trade

1.50

Criminal Actors

4.00

Mafia-Style Groups

1.50

Criminal Networks

4.50

State-Embedded Actors

4.00

Foreign Actors

6.00

4.67

State Resilience Score

16th of 54 African countries

3rd of 9 East Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

4.00

Government Transparency and Accountability

3.00

International Cooperation

7.50

National Policies and Laws

5.50

Judicial System and Detention

4.00

Law Enforcement

5.00

Territorial Integrity

6.00

Anti-Money Laundering

6.00

Economic Regulatory Environment

6.00

Victim and Witness Support

2.00

Prevention

4.00

Non-State Actors

3.00

4.67 4.00 3.45 4.67 4.00 3.45

Djibouti ranks 47th in the Index, with established criminal markets in human smuggling, human trafficking and arms trafficking.

Human smuggling and trafficking are associated with the sexual exploitation of victims of trafficking, while terrorist networks, such as al-Shabaab, are involved in arms trafficking. Djibouti’s illicit environmental markets is limited, as are its drugs markets – though some are increasing. Experts report the significant influence of foreign actors, and moderate influence of state-embedded actors and criminal networks, with no single criminal actor scoring above 6. Djibouti’s resilience scores are moderate, ranging from 3 to 7.5. It performs well in many categories, owing to effective legislation against organised crime, significant international cooperation and reforms to the business environment. Nevertheless, experts note that many government institutions suffer from corruption and insufficient funding, contributing to low scores in some resilience categories.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.