East Africa
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East Africa

Population

333,591,531

Area

5,908,725 km²

GDP total

$318,129.26 million

Countries

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.

5.51

Criminality Score

1st of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.96

Human Trafficking

6.61

Human Smuggling

6.22

Arms Trafficking

6.78

Flora Crimes

4.56

Fauna Crimes

5.17

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.17

Heroin Trade

3.89

Cocaine Trade

2.61

Cannabis Trade

5.61

Synthetic Drugs Trade

2.94

Criminal Actors

6.06

Mafia-Style Groups

4.33

Criminal Networks

6.56

State-Embedded Actors

7.00

Foreign Actors

6.33

3.51

State Resilience Score

4th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

3.67

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.61

International Cooperation

4.17

National Policies and Laws

4.56

Judicial System and Detention

3.56

Law Enforcement

3.72

Territorial Integrity

4.39

Anti-Money Laundering

4.11

Economic Regulatory Environment

3.72

Victim and Witness Support

1.78

Prevention

2.44

Non-State Actors

3.33

3.51 6.06 4.96 3.51 6.06 4.96

The East African region has the highest average criminality score of all five regions on the continent, with an average score of 5.51.

Indeed, six of the nine countries in the region appear in the top 20 highest-scoring countries for criminality, with Somalia and South Sudan leading the way in joint-fourth position, followed closely by Sudan, with the sixth highest criminality score in Africa. In the region, strong trends were identified in both criminal markets and criminal actors, as well as resilience. The region averages higher in terms of criminality (5.51) than the rest of the continent (4.97), with criminal markets at 4.96 (compared to Africa’s overall score of 4.68) and actors at 6.06 (where Africa averages 5.25). In line with other regions, criminal actors in East Africa drive up the overall criminality score. The most prevalent criminal markets in East Africa as a whole are for human trafficking, human smuggling and arms trafficking, each with average scores considerably higher than in the rest of Africa. While East Africa’s average criminal market score is actually lower than West Africa’s, its average criminal actor score of 6.06 is the highest of the five regions on the continent by a notable margin, driven predominantly by the influence of both criminal networks and state-embedded actors. In terms of resilience, East Africa is overall the second least resilient region (after Central Africa), with an average resilience score of 3.50, compared to the African average of 3.86. As is the case with many countries across the continent, resilience measures in this region are focused primarily on heavy security frameworks, at the expense of 'softer' response mechanisms.

Ghana

Capital

Accra

Population

29,767,108

Area

227,540 km²

Coastline Length

539 km

Landborder Length

2,420 km

GDP total

$65,556.46 million

GDP per capita

$2,202.31

GINI Index

43.5

4.89

Criminality Score

26th of 54 African countries

10th of 15 West Africa countries

Criminal market

5.15

Human Trafficking

4.00

Human Smuggling

4.50

Arms Trafficking

3.00

Flora Crimes

4.50

Fauna Crimes

4.00

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

7.50

Heroin Trade

6.00

Cocaine Trade

5.50

Cannabis Trade

7.00

Synthetic Drugs Trade

5.50

Criminal Actors

4.63

Mafia-Style Groups

1.00

Criminal Networks

6.00

State-Embedded Actors

6.50

Foreign Actors

5.00

5.46

State Resilience Score

10th of 54 African countries

4th of 15 West Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

6.00

Government Transparency and Accountability

5.00

International Cooperation

6.00

National Policies and Laws

5.50

Judicial System and Detention

5.00

Law Enforcement

6.00

Territorial Integrity

6.00

Anti-Money Laundering

6.00

Economic Regulatory Environment

6.50

Victim and Witness Support

3.00

Prevention

4.00

Non-State Actors

6.50

5.46 4.63 5.15 5.46 4.63 5.15

While Ghana is ranked 26th in the Index for criminality, with a score below the continental average, it ranks 16th for criminal markets, indicating several pervasive markets.

Of particular concern are the drugs markets, where the heroin trade and – to an even greater degree – the cannabis trade are considered to have a significant negative influence on society. The cocaine trade and synthetic drugs trade are also growing. However, the highest-scoring criminal market in Ghana is non-renewable resource crimes, with widespread reports of criminally controlled mining operations for gold and other precious metals and stones, which all have a detrimental impact on the environment and wider society. Experts note that criminal networks work across these markets but are often embedded within legitimate networks, making it harder to differentiate between the two. Ghana ranks 10th for overall resilience, having sufficiently effective capacity to combat organised crime and for its efforts to maintain territorial integrity. However, experts note improvements are needed in organised crime prevention measures and to significantly bolster support for victims and witnesses of organised crime.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.