East Africa
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East Africa

Population

333,591,531

Area

5,908,725 km²

GDP total

$318,129.26 million

Countries

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.

5.51

Criminality Score

1st of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.96

Human Trafficking

6.61

Human Smuggling

6.22

Arms Trafficking

6.78

Flora Crimes

4.56

Fauna Crimes

5.17

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.17

Heroin Trade

3.89

Cocaine Trade

2.61

Cannabis Trade

5.61

Synthetic Drugs Trade

2.94

Criminal Actors

6.06

Mafia-Style Groups

4.33

Criminal Networks

6.56

State-Embedded Actors

7.00

Foreign Actors

6.33

3.51

State Resilience Score

4th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

3.67

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.61

International Cooperation

4.17

National Policies and Laws

4.56

Judicial System and Detention

3.56

Law Enforcement

3.72

Territorial Integrity

4.39

Anti-Money Laundering

4.11

Economic Regulatory Environment

3.72

Victim and Witness Support

1.78

Prevention

2.44

Non-State Actors

3.33

3.51 6.06 4.96 3.51 6.06 4.96

The East African region has the highest average criminality score of all five regions on the continent, with an average score of 5.51.

Indeed, six of the nine countries in the region appear in the top 20 highest-scoring countries for criminality, with Somalia and South Sudan leading the way in joint-fourth position, followed closely by Sudan, with the sixth highest criminality score in Africa. In the region, strong trends were identified in both criminal markets and criminal actors, as well as resilience. The region averages higher in terms of criminality (5.51) than the rest of the continent (4.97), with criminal markets at 4.96 (compared to Africa’s overall score of 4.68) and actors at 6.06 (where Africa averages 5.25). In line with other regions, criminal actors in East Africa drive up the overall criminality score. The most prevalent criminal markets in East Africa as a whole are for human trafficking, human smuggling and arms trafficking, each with average scores considerably higher than in the rest of Africa. While East Africa’s average criminal market score is actually lower than West Africa’s, its average criminal actor score of 6.06 is the highest of the five regions on the continent by a notable margin, driven predominantly by the influence of both criminal networks and state-embedded actors. In terms of resilience, East Africa is overall the second least resilient region (after Central Africa), with an average resilience score of 3.50, compared to the African average of 3.86. As is the case with many countries across the continent, resilience measures in this region are focused primarily on heavy security frameworks, at the expense of 'softer' response mechanisms.

Nigeria

Capital

Abuja

Population

195,874,740

Area

910,770 km²

Coastline Length

853 km

Landborder Length

4,477 km

GDP total

$397,269.62 million

GDP per capita

$2,028.18

GINI Index

43.0

7.70

Criminality Score

1st of 54 African countries

1st of 15 West Africa countries

Criminal market

7.65

Human Trafficking

8.50

Human Smuggling

7.00

Arms Trafficking

7.50

Flora Crimes

7.00

Fauna Crimes

8.00

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

9.00

Heroin Trade

6.50

Cocaine Trade

6.50

Cannabis Trade

8.00

Synthetic Drugs Trade

8.50

Criminal Actors

7.75

Mafia-Style Groups

6.00

Criminal Networks

9.50

State-Embedded Actors

8.00

Foreign Actors

7.50

5.67

State Resilience Score

8th of 54 African countries

3rd of 15 West Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

5.50

Government Transparency and Accountability

5.50

International Cooperation

6.50

National Policies and Laws

8.00

Judicial System and Detention

4.00

Law Enforcement

6.00

Territorial Integrity

5.00

Anti-Money Laundering

6.00

Economic Regulatory Environment

6.00

Victim and Witness Support

4.00

Prevention

5.00

Non-State Actors

6.50

5.67 7.75 7.65 5.67 7.75 7.65

Nigeria has the highest level of criminality in Africa, ranking 1st in the Index.

Although four countries in Africa rank higher for criminal actors, Nigeria has the highest score for criminal markets, as a result of very high scores in almost every criminal market subcomponent. No criminal market scores lower than 6.5, and half of them exert a severe impact on nearly all parts of society. Nigeria has the highest score in Africa for the illicit market for non-renewables, driven mainly by the high levels of oil bunkering that occur in the country, as well as illegal gold mining. Nigeria also faces severe problems with regard to drug markets, cannabis and synthetic drugs in particular, the illicit fauna market and human trafficking. A major factor in the pervasiveness of criminal markets throughout Nigeria is the strength of numerous types of criminal actors operating in the country. Criminal networks, scoring 9.5 in the Index, are ubiquitous in Nigeria, accounting overwhelmingly for the dominant form of criminal entrepreneurship that is present in the country. State-embedded and foreign criminal actors are also heavily involved in organised-criminal activity in Nigeria. Yet, although Nigeria has the highest levels of criminality in Africa, it is simultaneously in the top ten highest-scoring countries for resilience, ranking 8th on the continent. Nigeria has the most robust and comprehensive organised-crime legislative framework in Africa, building upon a solid foundation of international cooperation on the matter. Furthermore, the country’s law-enforcement agencies, its anti-money laundering capacity and the strength of the economic regulatory environment in Nigeria have all been key factors in the country’s ability to penetrate organised-criminal activity. Nigeria has also allowed non-state actors to grow and operate relatively effectively, particularly in tackling drug consumption and trafficking. Nevertheless, there is significant scope for improvement with regard to the criminal-justice system’s ability to tackle organised crime.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.