East Africa
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East Africa

Population

333,591,531

Area

5,908,725 km²

GDP total

$318,129.26 million

Countries

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.

5.51

Criminality Score

1st of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.96

Human Trafficking

6.61

Human Smuggling

6.22

Arms Trafficking

6.78

Flora Crimes

4.56

Fauna Crimes

5.17

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.17

Heroin Trade

3.89

Cocaine Trade

2.61

Cannabis Trade

5.61

Synthetic Drugs Trade

2.94

Criminal Actors

6.06

Mafia-Style Groups

4.33

Criminal Networks

6.56

State-Embedded Actors

7.00

Foreign Actors

6.33

3.51

State Resilience Score

4th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

3.67

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.61

International Cooperation

4.17

National Policies and Laws

4.56

Judicial System and Detention

3.56

Law Enforcement

3.72

Territorial Integrity

4.39

Anti-Money Laundering

4.11

Economic Regulatory Environment

3.72

Victim and Witness Support

1.78

Prevention

2.44

Non-State Actors

3.33

3.51 6.06 4.96 3.51 6.06 4.96

The East African region has the highest average criminality score of all five regions on the continent, with an average score of 5.51.

Indeed, six of the nine countries in the region appear in the top 20 highest-scoring countries for criminality, with Somalia and South Sudan leading the way in joint-fourth position, followed closely by Sudan, with the sixth highest criminality score in Africa. In the region, strong trends were identified in both criminal markets and criminal actors, as well as resilience. The region averages higher in terms of criminality (5.51) than the rest of the continent (4.97), with criminal markets at 4.96 (compared to Africa’s overall score of 4.68) and actors at 6.06 (where Africa averages 5.25). In line with other regions, criminal actors in East Africa drive up the overall criminality score. The most prevalent criminal markets in East Africa as a whole are for human trafficking, human smuggling and arms trafficking, each with average scores considerably higher than in the rest of Africa. While East Africa’s average criminal market score is actually lower than West Africa’s, its average criminal actor score of 6.06 is the highest of the five regions on the continent by a notable margin, driven predominantly by the influence of both criminal networks and state-embedded actors. In terms of resilience, East Africa is overall the second least resilient region (after Central Africa), with an average resilience score of 3.50, compared to the African average of 3.86. As is the case with many countries across the continent, resilience measures in this region are focused primarily on heavy security frameworks, at the expense of 'softer' response mechanisms.

Central African Republic

Capital

Bangui

Population

4,666,377

Area

622,980 km²

Landborder Length

5,920 km

GDP total

$2,379.72 million

GDP per capita

$509.97

GINI Index

56.2

6.87

Criminality Score

3rd of 54 African countries

2nd of 11 Central Africa countries

Criminal market

5.85

Human Trafficking

7.00

Human Smuggling

5.00

Arms Trafficking

8.50

Flora Crimes

6.50

Fauna Crimes

8.00

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

9.00

Heroin Trade

3.00

Cocaine Trade

1.50

Cannabis Trade

3.00

Synthetic Drugs Trade

7.00

Criminal Actors

7.88

Mafia-Style Groups

8.50

Criminal Networks

8.00

State-Embedded Actors

7.50

Foreign Actors

7.50

1.50

State Resilience Score

52nd of 54 African countries

11th of 11 Central Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

1.50

Government Transparency and Accountability

1.50

International Cooperation

4.00

National Policies and Laws

1.50

Judicial System and Detention

1.00

Law Enforcement

1.00

Territorial Integrity

1.00

Anti-Money Laundering

1.00

Economic Regulatory Environment

1.50

Victim and Witness Support

1.00

Prevention

1.00

Non-State Actors

2.00

1.50 7.88 5.85 1.50 7.88 5.85

Organised crime in the Central African Republic (CAR) – ranking 3rd in Africa for criminality – is highly pervasive and has a widespread negative impact on society, due to both the severity of criminal markets and the influence of criminal actors.

Scores across nearly all criminal markets are very poor. Illicit mining and trafficking of diamonds are omnipresent throughout the CAR, and mafia-style groups are heavily involved in these activities. These groups are also often involved in other high-scoring criminal markets, such as arms trafficking and the fauna criminal market, in which foreign actors play an influential role. Organised crime is ubiquitous and experts note the CAR’s state apparatus has failed for years, which is reflected in the nation being ranked 52nd in Africa for resilience. There is no evidence of any polices or strategies having been implemented to prevent organised crime, and capacity to combat it is non-existent. Corruption is reported to be highly prevalent in government, which often cooperates with and facilitates the criminal actors that operate in the country. This, combined with the porous borders and the dominance of mafia style groups, leads the CAR to be highly affected by organised crime, with no signs of change.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.