East Africa
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East Africa

Population

333,591,531

Area

5,908,725 km²

GDP total

$318,129.26 million

Countries

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.

5.51

Criminality Score

1st of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.96

Human Trafficking

6.61

Human Smuggling

6.22

Arms Trafficking

6.78

Flora Crimes

4.56

Fauna Crimes

5.17

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.17

Heroin Trade

3.89

Cocaine Trade

2.61

Cannabis Trade

5.61

Synthetic Drugs Trade

2.94

Criminal Actors

6.06

Mafia-Style Groups

4.33

Criminal Networks

6.56

State-Embedded Actors

7.00

Foreign Actors

6.33

3.51

State Resilience Score

4th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

3.67

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.61

International Cooperation

4.17

National Policies and Laws

4.56

Judicial System and Detention

3.56

Law Enforcement

3.72

Territorial Integrity

4.39

Anti-Money Laundering

4.11

Economic Regulatory Environment

3.72

Victim and Witness Support

1.78

Prevention

2.44

Non-State Actors

3.33

3.51 6.06 4.96 3.51 6.06 4.96

The East African region has the highest average criminality score of all five regions on the continent, with an average score of 5.51.

Indeed, six of the nine countries in the region appear in the top 20 highest-scoring countries for criminality, with Somalia and South Sudan leading the way in joint-fourth position, followed closely by Sudan, with the sixth highest criminality score in Africa. In the region, strong trends were identified in both criminal markets and criminal actors, as well as resilience. The region averages higher in terms of criminality (5.51) than the rest of the continent (4.97), with criminal markets at 4.96 (compared to Africa’s overall score of 4.68) and actors at 6.06 (where Africa averages 5.25). In line with other regions, criminal actors in East Africa drive up the overall criminality score. The most prevalent criminal markets in East Africa as a whole are for human trafficking, human smuggling and arms trafficking, each with average scores considerably higher than in the rest of Africa. While East Africa’s average criminal market score is actually lower than West Africa’s, its average criminal actor score of 6.06 is the highest of the five regions on the continent by a notable margin, driven predominantly by the influence of both criminal networks and state-embedded actors. In terms of resilience, East Africa is overall the second least resilient region (after Central Africa), with an average resilience score of 3.50, compared to the African average of 3.86. As is the case with many countries across the continent, resilience measures in this region are focused primarily on heavy security frameworks, at the expense of 'softer' response mechanisms.

Guinea

Capital

Conakry

Population

12,414,318

Area

245,720 km²

Coastline Length

320 km

Landborder Length

4,046 km

GDP total

$10,989.79 million

GDP per capita

$885.25

GINI Index

33.7

5.39

Criminality Score

20th of 54 African countries

6th of 15 West Africa countries

Criminal market

5.15

Human Trafficking

6.50

Human Smuggling

3.50

Arms Trafficking

6.00

Flora Crimes

4.50

Fauna Crimes

5.50

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

7.50

Heroin Trade

3.00

Cocaine Trade

7.50

Cannabis Trade

4.50

Synthetic Drugs Trade

3.00

Criminal Actors

5.63

Mafia-Style Groups

1.50

Criminal Networks

5.50

State-Embedded Actors

8.50

Foreign Actors

7.00

2.75

State Resilience Score

40th of 54 African countries

13th of 15 West Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

1.50

Government Transparency and Accountability

3.00

International Cooperation

4.00

National Policies and Laws

3.50

Judicial System and Detention

3.00

Law Enforcement

3.00

Territorial Integrity

3.00

Anti-Money Laundering

3.00

Economic Regulatory Environment

3.00

Victim and Witness Support

1.50

Prevention

1.50

Non-State Actors

3.00

2.75 5.63 5.15 2.75 5.63 5.15

Guinea is ranked 20th for criminality in the Index, as a result of several pervasive criminal markets and highly influential criminal actors embedded within the state and foreign criminal actors.

Despite a high continental ranking for its criminal markets, Guinea’s score for criminal actors is actually higher. The country’s most pervasive criminal markets are non-renewable resources crimes, as a result of the prominence of the illicit gold and diamond industry that many Guineans rely on; and the cocaine trade, given the country’s prominent role as a transit country for the drug, which arrives in West Africa from Latin America. Drug trafficking has penetrated state institutions, bringing together local businesspeople, politicians, police officers and military personnel to form a complex and profitable alliance. Foreign actors play a major role in cocaine trafficking, and also human trafficking, which pushes many Guineans into forced labour or sexual exploitation. Guinea is ranked 40th in the Index for resilience. Despite having ratified the majority of international treaties and conventions on organised crime, with the notable exceptions of two key protocols of the Palermo Convention on the smuggling of migrants and the trafficking of arms, Guinea faces severe deficiencies in a number of crucial areas. In fact, Guinea’s scores for all other resilience indicators suggest either non-existent, or at the very most, extremely ineffective regulatory frameworks and institutions. Of particular concern is the lack of political will to tackle organised crime, with heavy state involvement in a number of criminal markets – in particular, the drug trade – a significant impediment to defeating organised crime. A complete lack of organised crime prevention measures or any institutional support for witnesses and victims of organised crime is a direct consequence of the lack of political leadership on the issue.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.