East Africa
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East Africa

Population

333,591,531

Area

5,908,725 km²

GDP total

$318,129.26 million

Countries

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.

5.51

Criminality Score

1st of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.96

Human Trafficking

6.61

Human Smuggling

6.22

Arms Trafficking

6.78

Flora Crimes

4.56

Fauna Crimes

5.17

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.17

Heroin Trade

3.89

Cocaine Trade

2.61

Cannabis Trade

5.61

Synthetic Drugs Trade

2.94

Criminal Actors

6.06

Mafia-Style Groups

4.33

Criminal Networks

6.56

State-Embedded Actors

7.00

Foreign Actors

6.33

3.51

State Resilience Score

4th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

3.67

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.61

International Cooperation

4.17

National Policies and Laws

4.56

Judicial System and Detention

3.56

Law Enforcement

3.72

Territorial Integrity

4.39

Anti-Money Laundering

4.11

Economic Regulatory Environment

3.72

Victim and Witness Support

1.78

Prevention

2.44

Non-State Actors

3.33

3.51 6.06 4.96 3.51 6.06 4.96

The East African region has the highest average criminality score of all five regions on the continent, with an average score of 5.51.

Indeed, six of the nine countries in the region appear in the top 20 highest-scoring countries for criminality, with Somalia and South Sudan leading the way in joint-fourth position, followed closely by Sudan, with the sixth highest criminality score in Africa. In the region, strong trends were identified in both criminal markets and criminal actors, as well as resilience. The region averages higher in terms of criminality (5.51) than the rest of the continent (4.97), with criminal markets at 4.96 (compared to Africa’s overall score of 4.68) and actors at 6.06 (where Africa averages 5.25). In line with other regions, criminal actors in East Africa drive up the overall criminality score. The most prevalent criminal markets in East Africa as a whole are for human trafficking, human smuggling and arms trafficking, each with average scores considerably higher than in the rest of Africa. While East Africa’s average criminal market score is actually lower than West Africa’s, its average criminal actor score of 6.06 is the highest of the five regions on the continent by a notable margin, driven predominantly by the influence of both criminal networks and state-embedded actors. In terms of resilience, East Africa is overall the second least resilient region (after Central Africa), with an average resilience score of 3.50, compared to the African average of 3.86. As is the case with many countries across the continent, resilience measures in this region are focused primarily on heavy security frameworks, at the expense of 'softer' response mechanisms.

Republic of the Congo

Capital

Brazzaville

Population

5,244,363

Area

341,500 km²

Coastline Length

169 km

Landborder Length

5,008 km

GDP total

$11,263.68 million

GDP per capita

$2,147.77

GINI Index

48.9

4.85

Criminality Score

29th of 54 African countries

5th of 11 Central Africa countries

Criminal market

4.45

Human Trafficking

4.00

Human Smuggling

4.00

Arms Trafficking

4.00

Flora Crimes

8.00

Fauna Crimes

7.00

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

3.00

Heroin Trade

3.50

Cocaine Trade

5.00

Cannabis Trade

4.00

Synthetic Drugs Trade

2.00

Criminal Actors

5.25

Mafia-Style Groups

3.00

Criminal Networks

6.00

State-Embedded Actors

8.00

Foreign Actors

4.00

3.08

State Resilience Score

36th of 54 African countries

5th of 11 Central Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

3.00

Government Transparency and Accountability

1.00

International Cooperation

4.00

National Policies and Laws

4.00

Judicial System and Detention

2.00

Law Enforcement

4.00

Territorial Integrity

3.00

Anti-Money Laundering

4.00

Economic Regulatory Environment

4.00

Victim and Witness Support

2.00

Prevention

3.00

Non-State Actors

3.00

3.08 5.25 4.45 3.08 5.25 4.45

The Republic of Congo ranks 29th in the Index, with a criminality score in line with the African average.

Consistent with continental trends, the criminal actors score drives up the overall criminality score more than its criminal markets score. The illicit flora and fauna markets, particularly the illegal logging of timber, as well as poaching for bushmeat and ivory, are among the country’s primary illicit economies, scoring 8 and 7, respectively. Additionally, because of cocaine transiting the country and the involvement of high-ranking officials in the cocaine trade, the cocaine market was assessed as having a moderately negative influence on society. The country scores moderately for human smuggling, human trafficking and arms trafficking, all scoring 4. In line with regional trends, state-embedded actors are the most pervasive criminal actor type in the country, scoring 8, largely because of endemic corruption, which enables criminal networks to develop. In terms of resilience, the Republic of Congo scored relatively poorly, with no score exceeding 4, and it ranks 36th in Africa. Porous borders, corruption that is present at the highest levels of government, and insufficient victim and witness support are among the contributors to the country’s low levels of resilience.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.