East Africa
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East Africa

Population

333,591,531

Area

5,908,725 km²

GDP total

$318,129.26 million

Countries

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.

5.51

Criminality Score

1st of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.96

Human Trafficking

6.61

Human Smuggling

6.22

Arms Trafficking

6.78

Flora Crimes

4.56

Fauna Crimes

5.17

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.17

Heroin Trade

3.89

Cocaine Trade

2.61

Cannabis Trade

5.61

Synthetic Drugs Trade

2.94

Criminal Actors

6.06

Mafia-Style Groups

4.33

Criminal Networks

6.56

State-Embedded Actors

7.00

Foreign Actors

6.33

3.51

State Resilience Score

4th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

3.67

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.61

International Cooperation

4.17

National Policies and Laws

4.56

Judicial System and Detention

3.56

Law Enforcement

3.72

Territorial Integrity

4.39

Anti-Money Laundering

4.11

Economic Regulatory Environment

3.72

Victim and Witness Support

1.78

Prevention

2.44

Non-State Actors

3.33

3.51 6.06 4.96 3.51 6.06 4.96

The East African region has the highest average criminality score of all five regions on the continent, with an average score of 5.51.

Indeed, six of the nine countries in the region appear in the top 20 highest-scoring countries for criminality, with Somalia and South Sudan leading the way in joint-fourth position, followed closely by Sudan, with the sixth highest criminality score in Africa. In the region, strong trends were identified in both criminal markets and criminal actors, as well as resilience. The region averages higher in terms of criminality (5.51) than the rest of the continent (4.97), with criminal markets at 4.96 (compared to Africa’s overall score of 4.68) and actors at 6.06 (where Africa averages 5.25). In line with other regions, criminal actors in East Africa drive up the overall criminality score. The most prevalent criminal markets in East Africa as a whole are for human trafficking, human smuggling and arms trafficking, each with average scores considerably higher than in the rest of Africa. While East Africa’s average criminal market score is actually lower than West Africa’s, its average criminal actor score of 6.06 is the highest of the five regions on the continent by a notable margin, driven predominantly by the influence of both criminal networks and state-embedded actors. In terms of resilience, East Africa is overall the second least resilient region (after Central Africa), with an average resilience score of 3.50, compared to the African average of 3.86. As is the case with many countries across the continent, resilience measures in this region are focused primarily on heavy security frameworks, at the expense of 'softer' response mechanisms.

West Africa

Population

376,793,379

Area

5,032,970 km²

GDP total

$609,808.18 million

Countries

Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo.

5.29

Criminality Score

2nd of 5 African regions

Criminal market

5.22

Human Trafficking

5.53

Human Smuggling

4.23

Arms Trafficking

5.23

Flora Crimes

5.73

Fauna Crimes

5.53

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

6.00

Heroin Trade

4.23

Cocaine Trade

5.20

Cannabis Trade

5.70

Synthetic Drugs Trade

4.80

Criminal Actors

5.35

Mafia-Style Groups

2.43

Criminal Networks

6.40

State-Embedded Actors

6.73

Foreign Actors

5.83

4.26

State Resilience Score

2nd of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

4.33

Government Transparency and Accountability

4.00

International Cooperation

5.33

National Policies and Laws

4.83

Judicial System and Detention

4.00

Law Enforcement

4.50

Territorial Integrity

4.43

Anti-Money Laundering

4.20

Economic Regulatory Environment

4.23

Victim and Witness Support

2.73

Prevention

3.10

Non-State Actors

5.40

4.26 5.35 5.22 4.26 5.35 5.22

Criminality in West Africa is the second highest on the continent (after East Africa), with a regional average of 5.29.

As with other regions, criminal actors (5.35) marginally drive up the criminality score for West Africa, compared to criminal markets (5.22). Notably, however, criminal markets were identified as the most pervasive in Africa, in part due to the diversity of illicit activities occurring throughout the region. Despite West Africa’s high criminality score, experts described the region as relatively resilient to organised crime, with an average of 4.26 (the most resilient region after Southern Africa). Exhibiting high criminality and high resilience scores suggests both a wide variation in pervasiveness of criminality among individual countries in the region, as well as inherent vulnerabilities that may not be helped by resilience measures. Moreover, the efficacy of higher resilience measures may be more clearly witnessed with future iterations of the Index.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.