East Africa
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East Africa

Population

333,591,531

Area

5,908,725 km²

GDP total

$318,129.26 million

Countries

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.

5.51

Criminality Score

1st of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.96

Human Trafficking

6.61

Human Smuggling

6.22

Arms Trafficking

6.78

Flora Crimes

4.56

Fauna Crimes

5.17

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.17

Heroin Trade

3.89

Cocaine Trade

2.61

Cannabis Trade

5.61

Synthetic Drugs Trade

2.94

Criminal Actors

6.06

Mafia-Style Groups

4.33

Criminal Networks

6.56

State-Embedded Actors

7.00

Foreign Actors

6.33

3.51

State Resilience Score

4th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

3.67

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.61

International Cooperation

4.17

National Policies and Laws

4.56

Judicial System and Detention

3.56

Law Enforcement

3.72

Territorial Integrity

4.39

Anti-Money Laundering

4.11

Economic Regulatory Environment

3.72

Victim and Witness Support

1.78

Prevention

2.44

Non-State Actors

3.33

3.51 6.06 4.96 3.51 6.06 4.96

The East African region has the highest average criminality score of all five regions on the continent, with an average score of 5.51.

Indeed, six of the nine countries in the region appear in the top 20 highest-scoring countries for criminality, with Somalia and South Sudan leading the way in joint-fourth position, followed closely by Sudan, with the sixth highest criminality score in Africa. In the region, strong trends were identified in both criminal markets and criminal actors, as well as resilience. The region averages higher in terms of criminality (5.51) than the rest of the continent (4.97), with criminal markets at 4.96 (compared to Africa’s overall score of 4.68) and actors at 6.06 (where Africa averages 5.25). In line with other regions, criminal actors in East Africa drive up the overall criminality score. The most prevalent criminal markets in East Africa as a whole are for human trafficking, human smuggling and arms trafficking, each with average scores considerably higher than in the rest of Africa. While East Africa’s average criminal market score is actually lower than West Africa’s, its average criminal actor score of 6.06 is the highest of the five regions on the continent by a notable margin, driven predominantly by the influence of both criminal networks and state-embedded actors. In terms of resilience, East Africa is overall the second least resilient region (after Central Africa), with an average resilience score of 3.50, compared to the African average of 3.86. As is the case with many countries across the continent, resilience measures in this region are focused primarily on heavy security frameworks, at the expense of 'softer' response mechanisms.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Capital

Kinshasa

Population

84,068,091

Area

2,267,050 km²

Coastline Length

37 km

Landborder Length

10,481 km

GDP total

$47,227.54 million

GDP per capita

$561.78

GINI Index

42.1

7.29

Criminality Score

2nd of 54 African countries

1st of 11 Central Africa countries

Criminal market

6.45

Human Trafficking

7.50

Human Smuggling

5.50

Arms Trafficking

9.00

Flora Crimes

8.50

Fauna Crimes

8.00

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

9.00

Heroin Trade

4.00

Cocaine Trade

3.50

Cannabis Trade

7.00

Synthetic Drugs Trade

2.50

Criminal Actors

8.13

Mafia-Style Groups

8.50

Criminal Networks

8.00

State-Embedded Actors

8.00

Foreign Actors

8.00

1.96

State Resilience Score

50th of 54 African countries

9th of 11 Central Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

1.00

Government Transparency and Accountability

1.50

International Cooperation

2.00

National Policies and Laws

3.50

Judicial System and Detention

2.00

Law Enforcement

1.00

Territorial Integrity

2.00

Anti-Money Laundering

1.50

Economic Regulatory Environment

1.50

Victim and Witness Support

2.00

Prevention

1.50

Non-State Actors

4.00

1.96 8.13 6.45 1.96 8.13 6.45

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) ranks 2nd in Africa criminality, with eight out of ten criminal markets scoring above 5, and all criminal actor types scoring 8 or above.

A relatively notable differential between the two criminality subcomponents suggests that criminal actors drive the DRC’s overall criminality score. In terms of criminal markets, environmental crimes consistently have high scores, with concerns that illegal logging, poaching and wildlife trafficking are rife. Most notable, however, are non-renewable resource crimes. Actors, from government forces to rebel militia, are involved in, and benefit from, the illicit trade of gold and criminal control of artisanal mining of conflict minerals and cobalt. These mines are also hotspots for the pervasive human trafficking and human smuggling markets. Armed mafia-style groups, and national and international criminal networks, are involved in high levels of organised crime throughout nearly all criminal markets and there is a high level of corruption within the government. This directly impacts the DRC’s resilience to organised crime and hinders all operations within the country. Across all resilience indicators, there is a marked lack of capacity to prevent and combat organised crime, and it is therefore entrenched in society. The DRC ranks 50th in Africa for resilience.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.