East Africa
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East Africa

Population

333,591,531

Area

5,908,725 km²

GDP total

$318,129.26 million

Countries

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.

5.51

Criminality Score

1st of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.96

Human Trafficking

6.61

Human Smuggling

6.22

Arms Trafficking

6.78

Flora Crimes

4.56

Fauna Crimes

5.17

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.17

Heroin Trade

3.89

Cocaine Trade

2.61

Cannabis Trade

5.61

Synthetic Drugs Trade

2.94

Criminal Actors

6.06

Mafia-Style Groups

4.33

Criminal Networks

6.56

State-Embedded Actors

7.00

Foreign Actors

6.33

3.51

State Resilience Score

4th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

3.67

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.61

International Cooperation

4.17

National Policies and Laws

4.56

Judicial System and Detention

3.56

Law Enforcement

3.72

Territorial Integrity

4.39

Anti-Money Laundering

4.11

Economic Regulatory Environment

3.72

Victim and Witness Support

1.78

Prevention

2.44

Non-State Actors

3.33

3.51 6.06 4.96 3.51 6.06 4.96

The East African region has the highest average criminality score of all five regions on the continent, with an average score of 5.51.

Indeed, six of the nine countries in the region appear in the top 20 highest-scoring countries for criminality, with Somalia and South Sudan leading the way in joint-fourth position, followed closely by Sudan, with the sixth highest criminality score in Africa. In the region, strong trends were identified in both criminal markets and criminal actors, as well as resilience. The region averages higher in terms of criminality (5.51) than the rest of the continent (4.97), with criminal markets at 4.96 (compared to Africa’s overall score of 4.68) and actors at 6.06 (where Africa averages 5.25). In line with other regions, criminal actors in East Africa drive up the overall criminality score. The most prevalent criminal markets in East Africa as a whole are for human trafficking, human smuggling and arms trafficking, each with average scores considerably higher than in the rest of Africa. While East Africa’s average criminal market score is actually lower than West Africa’s, its average criminal actor score of 6.06 is the highest of the five regions on the continent by a notable margin, driven predominantly by the influence of both criminal networks and state-embedded actors. In terms of resilience, East Africa is overall the second least resilient region (after Central Africa), with an average resilience score of 3.50, compared to the African average of 3.86. As is the case with many countries across the continent, resilience measures in this region are focused primarily on heavy security frameworks, at the expense of 'softer' response mechanisms.

Libya

Capital

Tripoli

Population

6,678,567

Area

1,759,540 km²

Coastline Length

1,770 km

Landborder Length

4,339 km

GDP total

$48,319.62 million

GDP per capita

$7,235.03

6.27

Criminality Score

7th of 54 African countries

1st of 6 North Africa countries

Criminal market

5.90

Human Trafficking

9.50

Human Smuggling

8.00

Arms Trafficking

8.50

Flora Crimes

1.00

Fauna Crimes

2.00

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

8.50

Heroin Trade

2.50

Cocaine Trade

3.50

Cannabis Trade

8.00

Synthetic Drugs Trade

7.50

Criminal Actors

6.63

Mafia-Style Groups

8.00

Criminal Networks

6.50

State-Embedded Actors

8.00

Foreign Actors

4.00

2.13

State Resilience Score

47th of 54 African countries

6th of 6 North Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

1.00

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.50

International Cooperation

2.50

National Policies and Laws

2.00

Judicial System and Detention

2.50

Law Enforcement

4.00

Territorial Integrity

2.00

Anti-Money Laundering

1.00

Economic Regulatory Environment

3.00

Victim and Witness Support

1.00

Prevention

1.00

Non-State Actors

3.00

2.13 6.63 5.90 2.13 6.63 5.90

Libya has one of the highest criminality scores in Africa, ranking 7th overall, with the highest score in North Africa.

As with the majority of African countries, Libya’s high overall criminality score is driven by a higher score for criminal actors than for criminal markets. The two types of criminal actor that have the most influence in Libya are mafia-style groups and state-embedded actors. Various mafia-style militia groups control many areas across the country. They are heavily involved in many criminal markets, including drug trafficking, human smuggling, human trafficking and illicit oil smuggling. Libya essentially has two competing governments, both with close links to militia groups and criminal actors. In some cases, they feed off one another, making the political process indirectly dependent on the proceeds of organised crime. With regards to criminal markets pervasive in Libya, human trafficking has a severe negative influence on nearly all parts of society. The country has the highest score in Africa (9.5) and the situation is deteriorating. Four other criminal markets have a severe influence in Libya – human smuggling, arms trafficking, non-renewable resource crimes and the cannabis trade – illustrating the breadth of organised criminal activity affecting the country. While Libya has one of the highest levels of organised crime in Africa, it is also one of the worst-performing countries on the continent for resilience to organised crime. Ranking 47th in Africa, the country's regulatory or institutional frameworks in relation to the 12 building blocks of state resilience are almost all either non-existent or extremely ineffective. The exception is law enforcement, in which the country performs marginally better, with a score of 4. In relation to organised crime, the complete absence of political leadership, anti-money laundering capacity, victim and witness support or prevention measures has placed Libya in an extremely perilous situation.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.