East Africa
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East Africa

Population

333,591,531

Area

5,908,725 km²

GDP total

$318,129.26 million

Countries

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.

5.51

Criminality Score

1st of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.96

Human Trafficking

6.61

Human Smuggling

6.22

Arms Trafficking

6.78

Flora Crimes

4.56

Fauna Crimes

5.17

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.17

Heroin Trade

3.89

Cocaine Trade

2.61

Cannabis Trade

5.61

Synthetic Drugs Trade

2.94

Criminal Actors

6.06

Mafia-Style Groups

4.33

Criminal Networks

6.56

State-Embedded Actors

7.00

Foreign Actors

6.33

3.51

State Resilience Score

4th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

3.67

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.61

International Cooperation

4.17

National Policies and Laws

4.56

Judicial System and Detention

3.56

Law Enforcement

3.72

Territorial Integrity

4.39

Anti-Money Laundering

4.11

Economic Regulatory Environment

3.72

Victim and Witness Support

1.78

Prevention

2.44

Non-State Actors

3.33

3.51 6.06 4.96 3.51 6.06 4.96

The East African region has the highest average criminality score of all five regions on the continent, with an average score of 5.51.

Indeed, six of the nine countries in the region appear in the top 20 highest-scoring countries for criminality, with Somalia and South Sudan leading the way in joint-fourth position, followed closely by Sudan, with the sixth highest criminality score in Africa. In the region, strong trends were identified in both criminal markets and criminal actors, as well as resilience. The region averages higher in terms of criminality (5.51) than the rest of the continent (4.97), with criminal markets at 4.96 (compared to Africa’s overall score of 4.68) and actors at 6.06 (where Africa averages 5.25). In line with other regions, criminal actors in East Africa drive up the overall criminality score. The most prevalent criminal markets in East Africa as a whole are for human trafficking, human smuggling and arms trafficking, each with average scores considerably higher than in the rest of Africa. While East Africa’s average criminal market score is actually lower than West Africa’s, its average criminal actor score of 6.06 is the highest of the five regions on the continent by a notable margin, driven predominantly by the influence of both criminal networks and state-embedded actors. In terms of resilience, East Africa is overall the second least resilient region (after Central Africa), with an average resilience score of 3.50, compared to the African average of 3.86. As is the case with many countries across the continent, resilience measures in this region are focused primarily on heavy security frameworks, at the expense of 'softer' response mechanisms.

Malawi

Capital

Lilongwe

Population

18,143,315

Area

94,280 km²

Landborder Length

2,857 km

GDP total

$7,064.97 million

GDP per capita

$389.40

GINI Index

44.7

3.88

Criminality Score

43rd of 54 African countries

8th of 13 Southern Africa countries

Criminal market

4.00

Human Trafficking

4.50

Human Smuggling

3.00

Arms Trafficking

4.00

Flora Crimes

4.00

Fauna Crimes

6.50

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

4.00

Heroin Trade

4.00

Cocaine Trade

2.50

Cannabis Trade

6.00

Synthetic Drugs Trade

1.50

Criminal Actors

3.75

Mafia-Style Groups

2.00

Criminal Networks

3.50

State-Embedded Actors

4.50

Foreign Actors

5.00

4.38

State Resilience Score

19th of 54 African countries

6th of 13 Southern Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

5.00

Government Transparency and Accountability

4.50

International Cooperation

4.50

National Policies and Laws

5.50

Judicial System and Detention

5.00

Law Enforcement

4.50

Territorial Integrity

2.50

Anti-Money Laundering

6.00

Economic Regulatory Environment

4.00

Victim and Witness Support

2.00

Prevention

3.00

Non-State Actors

6.00

4.38 3.75 4.00 4.38 3.75 4.00

Malawi ranks 43rd for criminality, primarily due to general the absence of any criminal markets that have any significant impact on society.

High scores for the cannabis trade and fauna crimes, however, indicate these are the most significant criminal markets in Malawi. While the majority of criminal markets are described as active, they are not as pervasive as in other African countries. State-embedded actors and foreign actors the most influence criminal actors in Malawi and are reported to be prevalent in human trafficking and wildlife trafficking. In terms of resilience, ranking 19th in Africa, Malawi is assessed to have greater levels of resilience than the majority of African states. Its porous borders have led to Malawi becoming a transit country for all types of organised crime, though the government is working with the UN to combat this. Prevention measures and frameworks are in place, but due to the porous borders and lack of resources for law enforcement, their effectiveness is often limited.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.