East Africa
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East Africa

Population

333,591,531

Area

5,908,725 km²

GDP total

$318,129.26 million

Countries

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda.

5.51

Criminality Score

1st of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.96

Human Trafficking

6.61

Human Smuggling

6.22

Arms Trafficking

6.78

Flora Crimes

4.56

Fauna Crimes

5.17

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.17

Heroin Trade

3.89

Cocaine Trade

2.61

Cannabis Trade

5.61

Synthetic Drugs Trade

2.94

Criminal Actors

6.06

Mafia-Style Groups

4.33

Criminal Networks

6.56

State-Embedded Actors

7.00

Foreign Actors

6.33

3.51

State Resilience Score

4th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

3.67

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.61

International Cooperation

4.17

National Policies and Laws

4.56

Judicial System and Detention

3.56

Law Enforcement

3.72

Territorial Integrity

4.39

Anti-Money Laundering

4.11

Economic Regulatory Environment

3.72

Victim and Witness Support

1.78

Prevention

2.44

Non-State Actors

3.33

3.51 6.06 4.96 3.51 6.06 4.96

The East African region has the highest average criminality score of all five regions on the continent, with an average score of 5.51.

Indeed, six of the nine countries in the region appear in the top 20 highest-scoring countries for criminality, with Somalia and South Sudan leading the way in joint-fourth position, followed closely by Sudan, with the sixth highest criminality score in Africa. In the region, strong trends were identified in both criminal markets and criminal actors, as well as resilience. The region averages higher in terms of criminality (5.51) than the rest of the continent (4.97), with criminal markets at 4.96 (compared to Africa’s overall score of 4.68) and actors at 6.06 (where Africa averages 5.25). In line with other regions, criminal actors in East Africa drive up the overall criminality score. The most prevalent criminal markets in East Africa as a whole are for human trafficking, human smuggling and arms trafficking, each with average scores considerably higher than in the rest of Africa. While East Africa’s average criminal market score is actually lower than West Africa’s, its average criminal actor score of 6.06 is the highest of the five regions on the continent by a notable margin, driven predominantly by the influence of both criminal networks and state-embedded actors. In terms of resilience, East Africa is overall the second least resilient region (after Central Africa), with an average resilience score of 3.50, compared to the African average of 3.86. As is the case with many countries across the continent, resilience measures in this region are focused primarily on heavy security frameworks, at the expense of 'softer' response mechanisms.

Tanzania

Capital

Dodoma

Population

56,318,348

Area

885,800 km²

Coastline Length

1,424 km

Landborder Length

4,161 km

GDP total

$57,437.07 million

GDP per capita

$1,050.68

GINI Index

37.8

5.63

Criminality Score

17th of 54 African countries

6th of 9 East Africa countries

Criminal market

6.25

Human Trafficking

6.00

Human Smuggling

6.00

Arms Trafficking

5.50

Flora Crimes

7.00

Fauna Crimes

7.00

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

6.00

Heroin Trade

7.50

Cocaine Trade

4.50

Cannabis Trade

8.00

Synthetic Drugs Trade

5.00

Criminal Actors

5.00

Mafia-Style Groups

3.00

Criminal Networks

6.00

State-Embedded Actors

5.50

Foreign Actors

5.50

4.13

State Resilience Score

22nd of 54 African countries

4th of 9 East Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

6.50

Government Transparency and Accountability

3.00

International Cooperation

4.00

National Policies and Laws

5.50

Judicial System and Detention

5.00

Law Enforcement

5.00

Territorial Integrity

4.50

Anti-Money Laundering

5.50

Economic Regulatory Environment

4.50

Victim and Witness Support

1.00

Prevention

3.00

Non-State Actors

2.00

4.13 5.00 6.25 4.13 5.00 6.25

Tanzania ranks 17th in the Index for criminality, with a broad range of established criminal markets, but an absence of any particularly dominant criminal actor-types.

No criminal market scores below 4.5, which suggests that of the ten markets studied, all have at least a moderate to high negative influence on society. However, with regards to criminal actors, no single actor type appears to dominate organised crime, with scores for criminal networks, state-embedded actors and foreign actors ranging between 5.5 and 6. Overall, Tanzania has become a strategic and important player in a number of regional illicit economies. These include growing drugs markets for cannabis and heroin, where the prevalence of users is high and Tanzanians play an instrumental role in trafficking networks. While resilience is deemed as moderate, ranking 22nd, with the government prioritising the fight against organised crime, evidence of tangible implementation is lacking. Experts note the shrinking space for civil society, and state targeting of lower-level drug users and trafficking victims, as being of significant concern.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.