Central Africa
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Central Africa

Population

192,599,175

Area

6,547,170 km²

GDP total

$259,770.71 million

Countries

Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe.

4.86

Criminality Score

3rd of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.63

Human Trafficking

5.41

Human Smuggling

4.27

Arms Trafficking

5.91

Flora Crimes

5.68

Fauna Crimes

5.59

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.64

Heroin Trade

3.09

Cocaine Trade

2.55

Cannabis Trade

4.36

Synthetic Drugs Trade

3.77

Criminal Actors

5.08

Mafia-Style Groups

3.45

Criminal Networks

5.09

State-Embedded Actors

7.09

Foreign Actors

4.68

2.95

State Resilience Score

5th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

2.95

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.32

International Cooperation

3.82

National Policies and Laws

4.18

Judicial System and Detention

2.82

Law Enforcement

3.27

Territorial Integrity

3.73

Anti-Money Laundering

2.91

Economic Regulatory Environment

2.77

Victim and Witness Support

1.86

Prevention

1.95

Non-State Actors

2.77

2.95 5.08 4.63 2.95 5.08 4.63

Central Africa’s criminality score falls below the continental average, placing it third in the regional ranking.

In line with other regions, criminal actors marginally drive up the criminality average for Central Africa, with an average score of 5.08, compared to its criminal markets average score of 4.63. When looking at the criminality components individually, both criminal markets and actors fall below the continental averages (4.68 and 5.25, respectively), suggesting perhaps a more limited distribution of criminality typologies than experienced in other regions. In the context of prolonged conflict in the region and the extensive biodiversity that occurs in many countries in Central Africa, arms trafficking and the environmental markets are far more prevalent than are the drug economies. While the region’s average criminal actors score places this subcomponent in the middle of the regional ranking, state-embedded actors have the highest average score in Central Africa than in any other region on the continent. Central Africa is by some distance the lowest-scoring region in Africa for resilience, with an average score of 2.95. While the region does not perform well on any resilience indicator, collectively it falls particularly short with regard to social protection measures, such as victim and witness support and prevention measures.

West Africa

Population

376,793,379

Area

5,032,970 km²

GDP total

$609,808.18 million

Countries

Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo.

5.29

Criminality Score

2nd of 5 African regions

Criminal market

5.22

Human Trafficking

5.53

Human Smuggling

4.23

Arms Trafficking

5.23

Flora Crimes

5.73

Fauna Crimes

5.53

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

6.00

Heroin Trade

4.23

Cocaine Trade

5.20

Cannabis Trade

5.70

Synthetic Drugs Trade

4.80

Criminal Actors

5.35

Mafia-Style Groups

2.43

Criminal Networks

6.40

State-Embedded Actors

6.73

Foreign Actors

5.83

4.26

State Resilience Score

2nd of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

4.33

Government Transparency and Accountability

4.00

International Cooperation

5.33

National Policies and Laws

4.83

Judicial System and Detention

4.00

Law Enforcement

4.50

Territorial Integrity

4.43

Anti-Money Laundering

4.20

Economic Regulatory Environment

4.23

Victim and Witness Support

2.73

Prevention

3.10

Non-State Actors

5.40

4.26 5.35 5.22 4.26 5.35 5.22

Criminality in West Africa is the second highest on the continent (after East Africa), with a regional average of 5.29.

As with other regions, criminal actors (5.35) marginally drive up the criminality score for West Africa, compared to criminal markets (5.22). Notably, however, criminal markets were identified as the most pervasive in Africa, in part due to the diversity of illicit activities occurring throughout the region. Despite West Africa’s high criminality score, experts described the region as relatively resilient to organised crime, with an average of 4.26 (the most resilient region after Southern Africa). Exhibiting high criminality and high resilience scores suggests both a wide variation in pervasiveness of criminality among individual countries in the region, as well as inherent vulnerabilities that may not be helped by resilience measures. Moreover, the efficacy of higher resilience measures may be more clearly witnessed with future iterations of the Index.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.