Central Africa
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Central Africa

Population

192,599,175

Area

6,547,170 km²

GDP total

$259,770.71 million

Countries

Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe.

4.86

Criminality Score

3rd of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.63

Human Trafficking

5.41

Human Smuggling

4.27

Arms Trafficking

5.91

Flora Crimes

5.68

Fauna Crimes

5.59

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.64

Heroin Trade

3.09

Cocaine Trade

2.55

Cannabis Trade

4.36

Synthetic Drugs Trade

3.77

Criminal Actors

5.08

Mafia-Style Groups

3.45

Criminal Networks

5.09

State-Embedded Actors

7.09

Foreign Actors

4.68

2.95

State Resilience Score

5th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

2.95

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.32

International Cooperation

3.82

National Policies and Laws

4.18

Judicial System and Detention

2.82

Law Enforcement

3.27

Territorial Integrity

3.73

Anti-Money Laundering

2.91

Economic Regulatory Environment

2.77

Victim and Witness Support

1.86

Prevention

1.95

Non-State Actors

2.77

2.95 5.08 4.63 2.95 5.08 4.63

Central Africa’s criminality score falls below the continental average, placing it third in the regional ranking.

In line with other regions, criminal actors marginally drive up the criminality average for Central Africa, with an average score of 5.08, compared to its criminal markets average score of 4.63. When looking at the criminality components individually, both criminal markets and actors fall below the continental averages (4.68 and 5.25, respectively), suggesting perhaps a more limited distribution of criminality typologies than experienced in other regions. In the context of prolonged conflict in the region and the extensive biodiversity that occurs in many countries in Central Africa, arms trafficking and the environmental markets are far more prevalent than are the drug economies. While the region’s average criminal actors score places this subcomponent in the middle of the regional ranking, state-embedded actors have the highest average score in Central Africa than in any other region on the continent. Central Africa is by some distance the lowest-scoring region in Africa for resilience, with an average score of 2.95. While the region does not perform well on any resilience indicator, collectively it falls particularly short with regard to social protection measures, such as victim and witness support and prevention measures.

Ethiopia

Capital

Addis Ababa

Population

109,224,559

Area

1,000,000 km²

Landborder Length

5,925 km

GDP total

$84,355.46 million

GDP per capita

$772.31

GINI Index

39.1

4.58

Criminality Score

37th of 54 African countries

7th of 9 East Africa countries

Criminal market

4.40

Human Trafficking

6.00

Human Smuggling

6.00

Arms Trafficking

6.50

Flora Crimes

3.50

Fauna Crimes

3.00

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

4.00

Heroin Trade

3.00

Cocaine Trade

4.00

Cannabis Trade

5.00

Synthetic Drugs Trade

3.00

Criminal Actors

4.75

Mafia-Style Groups

2.00

Criminal Networks

6.50

State-Embedded Actors

3.50

Foreign Actors

7.00

6.00

State Resilience Score

6th of 54 African countries

1st of 9 East Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

6.50

Government Transparency and Accountability

6.50

International Cooperation

7.00

National Policies and Laws

7.00

Judicial System and Detention

5.00

Law Enforcement

6.00

Territorial Integrity

7.00

Anti-Money Laundering

7.00

Economic Regulatory Environment

6.00

Victim and Witness Support

4.00

Prevention

4.50

Non-State Actors

5.50

6.00 4.75 4.40 6.00 4.75 4.40

Ethiopia ranks 37th in the Index, with most criminal markets scoring below 5, suggesting a moderate negative influence on society.

Human smuggling, human trafficking and arms trafficking are the most prevalent markets. Established criminal networks and foreign actors are involved in human smuggling and trafficking in Ethiopia, as well as the illicit narcotics trade. Although there is no evidence of the direct involvement of state-embedded actors in organised crime, experts note high levels of corruption. The government has demonstrated a willingness to tackle organised crime, leading to Ethiopia ranking as one of Africa’s most resilient nations, ranking 6th on the continent. Effective anti-money laundering legislation, ratification of international treaties and prevention of smuggling and trafficking all contribute to high scores in resilience categories.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.