Central Africa
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Central Africa

Population

192,599,175

Area

6,547,170 km²

GDP total

$259,770.71 million

Countries

Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe.

4.86

Criminality Score

3rd of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.63

Human Trafficking

5.41

Human Smuggling

4.27

Arms Trafficking

5.91

Flora Crimes

5.68

Fauna Crimes

5.59

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.64

Heroin Trade

3.09

Cocaine Trade

2.55

Cannabis Trade

4.36

Synthetic Drugs Trade

3.77

Criminal Actors

5.08

Mafia-Style Groups

3.45

Criminal Networks

5.09

State-Embedded Actors

7.09

Foreign Actors

4.68

2.95

State Resilience Score

5th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

2.95

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.32

International Cooperation

3.82

National Policies and Laws

4.18

Judicial System and Detention

2.82

Law Enforcement

3.27

Territorial Integrity

3.73

Anti-Money Laundering

2.91

Economic Regulatory Environment

2.77

Victim and Witness Support

1.86

Prevention

1.95

Non-State Actors

2.77

2.95 5.08 4.63 2.95 5.08 4.63

Central Africa’s criminality score falls below the continental average, placing it third in the regional ranking.

In line with other regions, criminal actors marginally drive up the criminality average for Central Africa, with an average score of 5.08, compared to its criminal markets average score of 4.63. When looking at the criminality components individually, both criminal markets and actors fall below the continental averages (4.68 and 5.25, respectively), suggesting perhaps a more limited distribution of criminality typologies than experienced in other regions. In the context of prolonged conflict in the region and the extensive biodiversity that occurs in many countries in Central Africa, arms trafficking and the environmental markets are far more prevalent than are the drug economies. While the region’s average criminal actors score places this subcomponent in the middle of the regional ranking, state-embedded actors have the highest average score in Central Africa than in any other region on the continent. Central Africa is by some distance the lowest-scoring region in Africa for resilience, with an average score of 2.95. While the region does not perform well on any resilience indicator, collectively it falls particularly short with regard to social protection measures, such as victim and witness support and prevention measures.

Botswana

Capital

Gaborone

Population

2,254,126

Area

566,730 km²

Landborder Length

4,347 km

GDP total

$18,616.02 million

GDP per capita

$8,258.64

GINI Index

53.3

3.34

Criminality Score

51st of 54 African countries

13th of 13 Southern Africa countries

Criminal market

3.30

Human Trafficking

3.50

Human Smuggling

2.00

Arms Trafficking

3.50

Flora Crimes

3.00

Fauna Crimes

5.00

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

1.50

Heroin Trade

3.50

Cocaine Trade

3.50

Cannabis Trade

4.00

Synthetic Drugs Trade

3.50

Criminal Actors

3.38

Mafia-Style Groups

1.00

Criminal Networks

4.50

State-Embedded Actors

3.00

Foreign Actors

5.00

6.25

State Resilience Score

4th of 54 African countries

2nd of 13 Southern Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

7.00

Government Transparency and Accountability

6.00

International Cooperation

7.50

National Policies and Laws

7.00

Judicial System and Detention

6.50

Law Enforcement

6.50

Territorial Integrity

6.50

Anti-Money Laundering

5.50

Economic Regulatory Environment

5.50

Victim and Witness Support

5.50

Prevention

5.00

Non-State Actors

6.50

6.25 3.38 3.30 6.25 3.38 3.30

Botswana ranks 51st in the Index, with one of the lowest criminality scores on the continent.

Low scores for non-renewable resources crimes are due in large part to the highly formalised and well-regulated diamond sector. However, reports suggest fauna crimes are rising because of increased poaching and the illegal trade in wildlife, leading experts to attribute low scores for this category. Strong evidence exists that armed poaching gangs include national criminal networks and foreign actors. However, there is little evidence of corruption or the existence of mafia-style groups in Botswana. Generally low scores across criminality suggest an overall low influence on society. Botswana scores well across resilience categories and the country ranks as one of the most resilient in Africa, in 4th place. The country has particularly high scores for international cooperation, political leadership and governance, and national policies and laws.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.