Central Africa
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Central Africa

Population

192,599,175

Area

6,547,170 km²

GDP total

$259,770.71 million

Countries

Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe.

4.86

Criminality Score

3rd of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.63

Human Trafficking

5.41

Human Smuggling

4.27

Arms Trafficking

5.91

Flora Crimes

5.68

Fauna Crimes

5.59

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.64

Heroin Trade

3.09

Cocaine Trade

2.55

Cannabis Trade

4.36

Synthetic Drugs Trade

3.77

Criminal Actors

5.08

Mafia-Style Groups

3.45

Criminal Networks

5.09

State-Embedded Actors

7.09

Foreign Actors

4.68

2.95

State Resilience Score

5th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

2.95

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.32

International Cooperation

3.82

National Policies and Laws

4.18

Judicial System and Detention

2.82

Law Enforcement

3.27

Territorial Integrity

3.73

Anti-Money Laundering

2.91

Economic Regulatory Environment

2.77

Victim and Witness Support

1.86

Prevention

1.95

Non-State Actors

2.77

2.95 5.08 4.63 2.95 5.08 4.63

Central Africa’s criminality score falls below the continental average, placing it third in the regional ranking.

In line with other regions, criminal actors marginally drive up the criminality average for Central Africa, with an average score of 5.08, compared to its criminal markets average score of 4.63. When looking at the criminality components individually, both criminal markets and actors fall below the continental averages (4.68 and 5.25, respectively), suggesting perhaps a more limited distribution of criminality typologies than experienced in other regions. In the context of prolonged conflict in the region and the extensive biodiversity that occurs in many countries in Central Africa, arms trafficking and the environmental markets are far more prevalent than are the drug economies. While the region’s average criminal actors score places this subcomponent in the middle of the regional ranking, state-embedded actors have the highest average score in Central Africa than in any other region on the continent. Central Africa is by some distance the lowest-scoring region in Africa for resilience, with an average score of 2.95. While the region does not perform well on any resilience indicator, collectively it falls particularly short with regard to social protection measures, such as victim and witness support and prevention measures.

Lesotho

Capital

Maseru

Population

2,108,132

Area

30,360 km²

Landborder Length

1,106 km

GDP total

$2,791.76 million

GDP per capita

$1,324.28

GINI Index

54.2

3.65

Criminality Score

48th of 54 African countries

11th of 13 Southern Africa countries

Criminal market

3.05

Human Trafficking

3.00

Human Smuggling

2.50

Arms Trafficking

5.50

Flora Crimes

1.00

Fauna Crimes

3.00

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.00

Heroin Trade

2.50

Cocaine Trade

1.50

Cannabis Trade

3.50

Synthetic Drugs Trade

3.00

Criminal Actors

4.25

Mafia-Style Groups

1.00

Criminal Networks

5.00

State-Embedded Actors

6.00

Foreign Actors

5.00

3.58

State Resilience Score

30th of 54 African countries

8th of 13 Southern Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

4.00

Government Transparency and Accountability

3.50

International Cooperation

5.00

National Policies and Laws

5.50

Judicial System and Detention

3.00

Law Enforcement

3.00

Territorial Integrity

2.50

Anti-Money Laundering

5.00

Economic Regulatory Environment

3.00

Victim and Witness Support

2.50

Prevention

2.00

Non-State Actors

4.00

3.58 4.25 3.05 3.58 4.25 3.05

Lesotho ranks 48th in Africa for criminality, highlighting its comparatively low level of criminal activity.

Markets for heroin, cocaine and synthetic drugs reportedly have little to no influence on society. However, the legalisation of cannabis for medicinal purposes has led to Lesotho being at the forefront of the emerging cannabis industry. In relation to non-renewable resources crimes, there are concerns over diamond smuggling, as Lesotho is known for its easy access to high-quality diamonds. This has created a market for smuggled diamonds, especially in extremely impoverished areas. Experts note that, in terms of arms, smaller weapons are often smuggled into the country to be used in robbery, hijacking and petty crime. Homicides involving firearms are on the rise in Lesotho, which makes arms trafficking a concern. National criminal networks have a significant negative impact on society as they are described as being quite common and use moderate levels of violence. They also often have affiliations with political parties. State-embedded actors are, however, the most influential criminal actor type in Lesotho. Low-level corruption is known to facilitate illegal activity in the country, and government officials have been implicated in the human trafficking market. Lesotho ranks 30th for resilience, which reflects the country’s relatively average performance. The country scores well for international cooperation and national policies and laws against organised crime. Notably, however, corruption is considered to be rife and prevention measures and law enforcement in Lesotho, as well as territorial integrity, judicial system and detention, and victim and witness support are noted to be extremely ineffective.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.