Central Africa
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Central Africa

Population

192,599,175

Area

6,547,170 km²

GDP total

$259,770.71 million

Countries

Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe.

4.86

Criminality Score

3rd of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.63

Human Trafficking

5.41

Human Smuggling

4.27

Arms Trafficking

5.91

Flora Crimes

5.68

Fauna Crimes

5.59

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.64

Heroin Trade

3.09

Cocaine Trade

2.55

Cannabis Trade

4.36

Synthetic Drugs Trade

3.77

Criminal Actors

5.08

Mafia-Style Groups

3.45

Criminal Networks

5.09

State-Embedded Actors

7.09

Foreign Actors

4.68

2.95

State Resilience Score

5th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

2.95

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.32

International Cooperation

3.82

National Policies and Laws

4.18

Judicial System and Detention

2.82

Law Enforcement

3.27

Territorial Integrity

3.73

Anti-Money Laundering

2.91

Economic Regulatory Environment

2.77

Victim and Witness Support

1.86

Prevention

1.95

Non-State Actors

2.77

2.95 5.08 4.63 2.95 5.08 4.63

Central Africa’s criminality score falls below the continental average, placing it third in the regional ranking.

In line with other regions, criminal actors marginally drive up the criminality average for Central Africa, with an average score of 5.08, compared to its criminal markets average score of 4.63. When looking at the criminality components individually, both criminal markets and actors fall below the continental averages (4.68 and 5.25, respectively), suggesting perhaps a more limited distribution of criminality typologies than experienced in other regions. In the context of prolonged conflict in the region and the extensive biodiversity that occurs in many countries in Central Africa, arms trafficking and the environmental markets are far more prevalent than are the drug economies. While the region’s average criminal actors score places this subcomponent in the middle of the regional ranking, state-embedded actors have the highest average score in Central Africa than in any other region on the continent. Central Africa is by some distance the lowest-scoring region in Africa for resilience, with an average score of 2.95. While the region does not perform well on any resilience indicator, collectively it falls particularly short with regard to social protection measures, such as victim and witness support and prevention measures.

Guinea

Capital

Conakry

Population

12,414,318

Area

245,720 km²

Coastline Length

320 km

Landborder Length

4,046 km

GDP total

$10,989.79 million

GDP per capita

$885.25

GINI Index

33.7

5.39

Criminality Score

20th of 54 African countries

6th of 15 West Africa countries

Criminal market

5.15

Human Trafficking

6.50

Human Smuggling

3.50

Arms Trafficking

6.00

Flora Crimes

4.50

Fauna Crimes

5.50

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

7.50

Heroin Trade

3.00

Cocaine Trade

7.50

Cannabis Trade

4.50

Synthetic Drugs Trade

3.00

Criminal Actors

5.63

Mafia-Style Groups

1.50

Criminal Networks

5.50

State-Embedded Actors

8.50

Foreign Actors

7.00

2.75

State Resilience Score

40th of 54 African countries

13th of 15 West Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

1.50

Government Transparency and Accountability

3.00

International Cooperation

4.00

National Policies and Laws

3.50

Judicial System and Detention

3.00

Law Enforcement

3.00

Territorial Integrity

3.00

Anti-Money Laundering

3.00

Economic Regulatory Environment

3.00

Victim and Witness Support

1.50

Prevention

1.50

Non-State Actors

3.00

2.75 5.63 5.15 2.75 5.63 5.15

Guinea is ranked 20th for criminality in the Index, as a result of several pervasive criminal markets and highly influential criminal actors embedded within the state and foreign criminal actors.

Despite a high continental ranking for its criminal markets, Guinea’s score for criminal actors is actually higher. The country’s most pervasive criminal markets are non-renewable resources crimes, as a result of the prominence of the illicit gold and diamond industry that many Guineans rely on; and the cocaine trade, given the country’s prominent role as a transit country for the drug, which arrives in West Africa from Latin America. Drug trafficking has penetrated state institutions, bringing together local businesspeople, politicians, police officers and military personnel to form a complex and profitable alliance. Foreign actors play a major role in cocaine trafficking, and also human trafficking, which pushes many Guineans into forced labour or sexual exploitation. Guinea is ranked 40th in the Index for resilience. Despite having ratified the majority of international treaties and conventions on organised crime, with the notable exceptions of two key protocols of the Palermo Convention on the smuggling of migrants and the trafficking of arms, Guinea faces severe deficiencies in a number of crucial areas. In fact, Guinea’s scores for all other resilience indicators suggest either non-existent, or at the very most, extremely ineffective regulatory frameworks and institutions. Of particular concern is the lack of political will to tackle organised crime, with heavy state involvement in a number of criminal markets – in particular, the drug trade – a significant impediment to defeating organised crime. A complete lack of organised crime prevention measures or any institutional support for witnesses and victims of organised crime is a direct consequence of the lack of political leadership on the issue.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.