Central Africa
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Central Africa

Population

192,599,175

Area

6,547,170 km²

GDP total

$259,770.71 million

Countries

Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe.

4.86

Criminality Score

3rd of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.63

Human Trafficking

5.41

Human Smuggling

4.27

Arms Trafficking

5.91

Flora Crimes

5.68

Fauna Crimes

5.59

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.64

Heroin Trade

3.09

Cocaine Trade

2.55

Cannabis Trade

4.36

Synthetic Drugs Trade

3.77

Criminal Actors

5.08

Mafia-Style Groups

3.45

Criminal Networks

5.09

State-Embedded Actors

7.09

Foreign Actors

4.68

2.95

State Resilience Score

5th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

2.95

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.32

International Cooperation

3.82

National Policies and Laws

4.18

Judicial System and Detention

2.82

Law Enforcement

3.27

Territorial Integrity

3.73

Anti-Money Laundering

2.91

Economic Regulatory Environment

2.77

Victim and Witness Support

1.86

Prevention

1.95

Non-State Actors

2.77

2.95 5.08 4.63 2.95 5.08 4.63

Central Africa’s criminality score falls below the continental average, placing it third in the regional ranking.

In line with other regions, criminal actors marginally drive up the criminality average for Central Africa, with an average score of 5.08, compared to its criminal markets average score of 4.63. When looking at the criminality components individually, both criminal markets and actors fall below the continental averages (4.68 and 5.25, respectively), suggesting perhaps a more limited distribution of criminality typologies than experienced in other regions. In the context of prolonged conflict in the region and the extensive biodiversity that occurs in many countries in Central Africa, arms trafficking and the environmental markets are far more prevalent than are the drug economies. While the region’s average criminal actors score places this subcomponent in the middle of the regional ranking, state-embedded actors have the highest average score in Central Africa than in any other region on the continent. Central Africa is by some distance the lowest-scoring region in Africa for resilience, with an average score of 2.95. While the region does not perform well on any resilience indicator, collectively it falls particularly short with regard to social protection measures, such as victim and witness support and prevention measures.

Zimbabwe

Capital

Harare

Population

14,439,018

Area

386,850 km²

Landborder Length

3,229 km

GDP total

$31,000.52 million

GDP per capita

$2,147.00

GINI Index

43.2

5.42

Criminality Score

19th of 54 African countries

3rd of 13 Southern Africa countries

Criminal market

4.70

Human Trafficking

5.00

Human Smuggling

3.00

Arms Trafficking

3.50

Flora Crimes

4.00

Fauna Crimes

7.50

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

8.00

Heroin Trade

4.00

Cocaine Trade

2.50

Cannabis Trade

4.50

Synthetic Drugs Trade

5.00

Criminal Actors

6.13

Mafia-Style Groups

3.50

Criminal Networks

7.50

State-Embedded Actors

8.50

Foreign Actors

5.00

3.33

State Resilience Score

32nd of 54 African countries

9th of 13 Southern Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

2.50

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.00

International Cooperation

3.00

National Policies and Laws

3.50

Judicial System and Detention

2.50

Law Enforcement

3.50

Territorial Integrity

6.00

Anti-Money Laundering

5.00

Economic Regulatory Environment

3.00

Victim and Witness Support

1.00

Prevention

2.00

Non-State Actors

6.00

3.33 6.13 4.70 3.33 6.13 4.70

Zimbabwe ranks 19th in the Index, with its poorest criminality scores in illegal environmental markets, criminal networks and state-embedded actors.

Criminal networks and state-embedded actors act together to exploit the country’s resources, especially non-renewable resources such as diamonds, but also fauna. Although Zimbabwe’s illicit narcotics markets, human trafficking, human smuggling, and arms trafficking are all established, scores were moderate in comparison to the environmental markets. In terms of resilience, Zimbabwe scores fairly poorly across all areas, ranking 32nd, with only two categories scoring above 5. However, experts note Zimbabwe’s control over its territorial integrity and the active role of civil society organisations as positive. However, generally low resilience scores are largely due to the participation of state officials in illicit networks. High levels of state corruption at all levels, insufficient victim and witness support, and insufficient prevention of organised crime contribute to the low resilience scores overall.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.