Central Africa
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Central Africa

Population

192,599,175

Area

6,547,170 km²

GDP total

$259,770.71 million

Countries

Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe.

4.86

Criminality Score

3rd of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.63

Human Trafficking

5.41

Human Smuggling

4.27

Arms Trafficking

5.91

Flora Crimes

5.68

Fauna Crimes

5.59

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.64

Heroin Trade

3.09

Cocaine Trade

2.55

Cannabis Trade

4.36

Synthetic Drugs Trade

3.77

Criminal Actors

5.08

Mafia-Style Groups

3.45

Criminal Networks

5.09

State-Embedded Actors

7.09

Foreign Actors

4.68

2.95

State Resilience Score

5th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

2.95

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.32

International Cooperation

3.82

National Policies and Laws

4.18

Judicial System and Detention

2.82

Law Enforcement

3.27

Territorial Integrity

3.73

Anti-Money Laundering

2.91

Economic Regulatory Environment

2.77

Victim and Witness Support

1.86

Prevention

1.95

Non-State Actors

2.77

2.95 5.08 4.63 2.95 5.08 4.63

Central Africa’s criminality score falls below the continental average, placing it third in the regional ranking.

In line with other regions, criminal actors marginally drive up the criminality average for Central Africa, with an average score of 5.08, compared to its criminal markets average score of 4.63. When looking at the criminality components individually, both criminal markets and actors fall below the continental averages (4.68 and 5.25, respectively), suggesting perhaps a more limited distribution of criminality typologies than experienced in other regions. In the context of prolonged conflict in the region and the extensive biodiversity that occurs in many countries in Central Africa, arms trafficking and the environmental markets are far more prevalent than are the drug economies. While the region’s average criminal actors score places this subcomponent in the middle of the regional ranking, state-embedded actors have the highest average score in Central Africa than in any other region on the continent. Central Africa is by some distance the lowest-scoring region in Africa for resilience, with an average score of 2.95. While the region does not perform well on any resilience indicator, collectively it falls particularly short with regard to social protection measures, such as victim and witness support and prevention measures.

Guinea-Bissau

Capital

Bissau

Population

1,874,309

Area

28,120 km²

Coastline Length

350 km

Landborder Length

762 km

GDP total

$1,458.16 million

GDP per capita

$777.97

GINI Index

50.7

4.99

Criminality Score

24th of 54 African countries

8th of 15 West Africa countries

Criminal market

4.35

Human Trafficking

3.00

Human Smuggling

2.50

Arms Trafficking

4.50

Flora Crimes

8.00

Fauna Crimes

5.50

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

1.00

Heroin Trade

5.00

Cocaine Trade

7.00

Cannabis Trade

5.00

Synthetic Drugs Trade

2.00

Criminal Actors

5.63

Mafia-Style Groups

1.50

Criminal Networks

7.50

State-Embedded Actors

7.50

Foreign Actors

6.00

2.67

State Resilience Score

42nd of 54 African countries

14th of 15 West Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

2.50

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.00

International Cooperation

4.00

National Policies and Laws

4.00

Judicial System and Detention

3.00

Law Enforcement

3.50

Territorial Integrity

3.00

Anti-Money Laundering

2.50

Economic Regulatory Environment

1.50

Victim and Witness Support

1.00

Prevention

1.00

Non-State Actors

4.00

2.67 5.63 4.35 2.67 5.63 4.35

Guinea-Bissau is ranked 24th for criminality in the Index, with a score of 4.99, at almost exactly the African average.

The country’s scores for criminal markets fluctuate greatly, the most pervasive and established of which are flora crimes and the cocaine trade. Additionally, the markets for other illicit narcotics were deemed as moderately influential, owing in large part to the smuggling of cannabis and heroin through Guinea-Bissau. The country’s criminal actors score is considerably higher than its criminal markets score, with criminal networks, state-embedded actors and foreign actors all scoring a 6 or above. The entrenched relationship between international criminal networks and the country’s political-military elites is of particular concern. With regard to resilience, Guinea-Bissau score poorly, ranking 42nd in Africa, with no indicator score exceeding 4. Chronic political instability and a weak government have meant that little progress has been made in the fight against organised crime. Moreover, government involvement in organised crime, insufficient arrangements to help victims or witnesses, and the state’s extremely ineffective criminal-justice system and economic regulatory environment are among the many obstacles that currently blight Guinea-Bissau.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.