Central Africa
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Central Africa

Population

192,599,175

Area

6,547,170 km²

GDP total

$259,770.71 million

Countries

Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe.

4.86

Criminality Score

3rd of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.63

Human Trafficking

5.41

Human Smuggling

4.27

Arms Trafficking

5.91

Flora Crimes

5.68

Fauna Crimes

5.59

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.64

Heroin Trade

3.09

Cocaine Trade

2.55

Cannabis Trade

4.36

Synthetic Drugs Trade

3.77

Criminal Actors

5.08

Mafia-Style Groups

3.45

Criminal Networks

5.09

State-Embedded Actors

7.09

Foreign Actors

4.68

2.95

State Resilience Score

5th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

2.95

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.32

International Cooperation

3.82

National Policies and Laws

4.18

Judicial System and Detention

2.82

Law Enforcement

3.27

Territorial Integrity

3.73

Anti-Money Laundering

2.91

Economic Regulatory Environment

2.77

Victim and Witness Support

1.86

Prevention

1.95

Non-State Actors

2.77

2.95 5.08 4.63 2.95 5.08 4.63

Central Africa’s criminality score falls below the continental average, placing it third in the regional ranking.

In line with other regions, criminal actors marginally drive up the criminality average for Central Africa, with an average score of 5.08, compared to its criminal markets average score of 4.63. When looking at the criminality components individually, both criminal markets and actors fall below the continental averages (4.68 and 5.25, respectively), suggesting perhaps a more limited distribution of criminality typologies than experienced in other regions. In the context of prolonged conflict in the region and the extensive biodiversity that occurs in many countries in Central Africa, arms trafficking and the environmental markets are far more prevalent than are the drug economies. While the region’s average criminal actors score places this subcomponent in the middle of the regional ranking, state-embedded actors have the highest average score in Central Africa than in any other region on the continent. Central Africa is by some distance the lowest-scoring region in Africa for resilience, with an average score of 2.95. While the region does not perform well on any resilience indicator, collectively it falls particularly short with regard to social protection measures, such as victim and witness support and prevention measures.

Malawi

Capital

Lilongwe

Population

18,143,315

Area

94,280 km²

Landborder Length

2,857 km

GDP total

$7,064.97 million

GDP per capita

$389.40

GINI Index

44.7

3.88

Criminality Score

43rd of 54 African countries

8th of 13 Southern Africa countries

Criminal market

4.00

Human Trafficking

4.50

Human Smuggling

3.00

Arms Trafficking

4.00

Flora Crimes

4.00

Fauna Crimes

6.50

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

4.00

Heroin Trade

4.00

Cocaine Trade

2.50

Cannabis Trade

6.00

Synthetic Drugs Trade

1.50

Criminal Actors

3.75

Mafia-Style Groups

2.00

Criminal Networks

3.50

State-Embedded Actors

4.50

Foreign Actors

5.00

4.38

State Resilience Score

19th of 54 African countries

6th of 13 Southern Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

5.00

Government Transparency and Accountability

4.50

International Cooperation

4.50

National Policies and Laws

5.50

Judicial System and Detention

5.00

Law Enforcement

4.50

Territorial Integrity

2.50

Anti-Money Laundering

6.00

Economic Regulatory Environment

4.00

Victim and Witness Support

2.00

Prevention

3.00

Non-State Actors

6.00

4.38 3.75 4.00 4.38 3.75 4.00

Malawi ranks 43rd for criminality, primarily due to general the absence of any criminal markets that have any significant impact on society.

High scores for the cannabis trade and fauna crimes, however, indicate these are the most significant criminal markets in Malawi. While the majority of criminal markets are described as active, they are not as pervasive as in other African countries. State-embedded actors and foreign actors the most influence criminal actors in Malawi and are reported to be prevalent in human trafficking and wildlife trafficking. In terms of resilience, ranking 19th in Africa, Malawi is assessed to have greater levels of resilience than the majority of African states. Its porous borders have led to Malawi becoming a transit country for all types of organised crime, though the government is working with the UN to combat this. Prevention measures and frameworks are in place, but due to the porous borders and lack of resources for law enforcement, their effectiveness is often limited.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.