Central Africa
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Central Africa

Population

192,599,175

Area

6,547,170 km²

GDP total

$259,770.71 million

Countries

Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe.

4.86

Criminality Score

3rd of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.63

Human Trafficking

5.41

Human Smuggling

4.27

Arms Trafficking

5.91

Flora Crimes

5.68

Fauna Crimes

5.59

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.64

Heroin Trade

3.09

Cocaine Trade

2.55

Cannabis Trade

4.36

Synthetic Drugs Trade

3.77

Criminal Actors

5.08

Mafia-Style Groups

3.45

Criminal Networks

5.09

State-Embedded Actors

7.09

Foreign Actors

4.68

2.95

State Resilience Score

5th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

2.95

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.32

International Cooperation

3.82

National Policies and Laws

4.18

Judicial System and Detention

2.82

Law Enforcement

3.27

Territorial Integrity

3.73

Anti-Money Laundering

2.91

Economic Regulatory Environment

2.77

Victim and Witness Support

1.86

Prevention

1.95

Non-State Actors

2.77

2.95 5.08 4.63 2.95 5.08 4.63

Central Africa’s criminality score falls below the continental average, placing it third in the regional ranking.

In line with other regions, criminal actors marginally drive up the criminality average for Central Africa, with an average score of 5.08, compared to its criminal markets average score of 4.63. When looking at the criminality components individually, both criminal markets and actors fall below the continental averages (4.68 and 5.25, respectively), suggesting perhaps a more limited distribution of criminality typologies than experienced in other regions. In the context of prolonged conflict in the region and the extensive biodiversity that occurs in many countries in Central Africa, arms trafficking and the environmental markets are far more prevalent than are the drug economies. While the region’s average criminal actors score places this subcomponent in the middle of the regional ranking, state-embedded actors have the highest average score in Central Africa than in any other region on the continent. Central Africa is by some distance the lowest-scoring region in Africa for resilience, with an average score of 2.95. While the region does not perform well on any resilience indicator, collectively it falls particularly short with regard to social protection measures, such as victim and witness support and prevention measures.

Nigeria

Capital

Abuja

Population

195,874,740

Area

910,770 km²

Coastline Length

853 km

Landborder Length

4,477 km

GDP total

$397,269.62 million

GDP per capita

$2,028.18

GINI Index

43.0

7.70

Criminality Score

1st of 54 African countries

1st of 15 West Africa countries

Criminal market

7.65

Human Trafficking

8.50

Human Smuggling

7.00

Arms Trafficking

7.50

Flora Crimes

7.00

Fauna Crimes

8.00

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

9.00

Heroin Trade

6.50

Cocaine Trade

6.50

Cannabis Trade

8.00

Synthetic Drugs Trade

8.50

Criminal Actors

7.75

Mafia-Style Groups

6.00

Criminal Networks

9.50

State-Embedded Actors

8.00

Foreign Actors

7.50

5.67

State Resilience Score

8th of 54 African countries

3rd of 15 West Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

5.50

Government Transparency and Accountability

5.50

International Cooperation

6.50

National Policies and Laws

8.00

Judicial System and Detention

4.00

Law Enforcement

6.00

Territorial Integrity

5.00

Anti-Money Laundering

6.00

Economic Regulatory Environment

6.00

Victim and Witness Support

4.00

Prevention

5.00

Non-State Actors

6.50

5.67 7.75 7.65 5.67 7.75 7.65

Nigeria has the highest level of criminality in Africa, ranking 1st in the Index.

Although four countries in Africa rank higher for criminal actors, Nigeria has the highest score for criminal markets, as a result of very high scores in almost every criminal market subcomponent. No criminal market scores lower than 6.5, and half of them exert a severe impact on nearly all parts of society. Nigeria has the highest score in Africa for the illicit market for non-renewables, driven mainly by the high levels of oil bunkering that occur in the country, as well as illegal gold mining. Nigeria also faces severe problems with regard to drug markets, cannabis and synthetic drugs in particular, the illicit fauna market and human trafficking. A major factor in the pervasiveness of criminal markets throughout Nigeria is the strength of numerous types of criminal actors operating in the country. Criminal networks, scoring 9.5 in the Index, are ubiquitous in Nigeria, accounting overwhelmingly for the dominant form of criminal entrepreneurship that is present in the country. State-embedded and foreign criminal actors are also heavily involved in organised-criminal activity in Nigeria. Yet, although Nigeria has the highest levels of criminality in Africa, it is simultaneously in the top ten highest-scoring countries for resilience, ranking 8th on the continent. Nigeria has the most robust and comprehensive organised-crime legislative framework in Africa, building upon a solid foundation of international cooperation on the matter. Furthermore, the country’s law-enforcement agencies, its anti-money laundering capacity and the strength of the economic regulatory environment in Nigeria have all been key factors in the country’s ability to penetrate organised-criminal activity. Nigeria has also allowed non-state actors to grow and operate relatively effectively, particularly in tackling drug consumption and trafficking. Nevertheless, there is significant scope for improvement with regard to the criminal-justice system’s ability to tackle organised crime.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.