Central Africa
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Central Africa

Population

192,599,175

Area

6,547,170 km²

GDP total

$259,770.71 million

Countries

Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe.

4.86

Criminality Score

3rd of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.63

Human Trafficking

5.41

Human Smuggling

4.27

Arms Trafficking

5.91

Flora Crimes

5.68

Fauna Crimes

5.59

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.64

Heroin Trade

3.09

Cocaine Trade

2.55

Cannabis Trade

4.36

Synthetic Drugs Trade

3.77

Criminal Actors

5.08

Mafia-Style Groups

3.45

Criminal Networks

5.09

State-Embedded Actors

7.09

Foreign Actors

4.68

2.95

State Resilience Score

5th of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

2.95

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.32

International Cooperation

3.82

National Policies and Laws

4.18

Judicial System and Detention

2.82

Law Enforcement

3.27

Territorial Integrity

3.73

Anti-Money Laundering

2.91

Economic Regulatory Environment

2.77

Victim and Witness Support

1.86

Prevention

1.95

Non-State Actors

2.77

2.95 5.08 4.63 2.95 5.08 4.63

Central Africa’s criminality score falls below the continental average, placing it third in the regional ranking.

In line with other regions, criminal actors marginally drive up the criminality average for Central Africa, with an average score of 5.08, compared to its criminal markets average score of 4.63. When looking at the criminality components individually, both criminal markets and actors fall below the continental averages (4.68 and 5.25, respectively), suggesting perhaps a more limited distribution of criminality typologies than experienced in other regions. In the context of prolonged conflict in the region and the extensive biodiversity that occurs in many countries in Central Africa, arms trafficking and the environmental markets are far more prevalent than are the drug economies. While the region’s average criminal actors score places this subcomponent in the middle of the regional ranking, state-embedded actors have the highest average score in Central Africa than in any other region on the continent. Central Africa is by some distance the lowest-scoring region in Africa for resilience, with an average score of 2.95. While the region does not perform well on any resilience indicator, collectively it falls particularly short with regard to social protection measures, such as victim and witness support and prevention measures.

Togo

Capital

Lomé

Population

7,889,094

Area

54,390 km²

Coastline Length

56 km

Landborder Length

1,880 km

GDP total

$5,300.21 million

GDP per capita

$671.84

GINI Index

43.1

5.57

Criminality Score

18th of 54 African countries

5th of 15 West Africa countries

Criminal market

5.00

Human Trafficking

6.00

Human Smuggling

3.00

Arms Trafficking

5.50

Flora Crimes

5.00

Fauna Crimes

7.00

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

5.00

Heroin Trade

3.00

Cocaine Trade

4.00

Cannabis Trade

6.50

Synthetic Drugs Trade

5.00

Criminal Actors

6.13

Mafia-Style Groups

1.00

Criminal Networks

7.50

State-Embedded Actors

8.00

Foreign Actors

8.00

4.04

State Resilience Score

23rd of 54 African countries

8th of 15 West Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

3.00

Government Transparency and Accountability

2.50

International Cooperation

6.50

National Policies and Laws

4.50

Judicial System and Detention

3.50

Law Enforcement

4.00

Territorial Integrity

4.00

Anti-Money Laundering

3.00

Economic Regulatory Environment

4.50

Victim and Witness Support

4.50

Prevention

4.00

Non-State Actors

4.50

4.04 6.13 5.00 4.04 6.13 5.00

Togo is ranked 18th in the Index, reflecting higher levels of organised crime in the country than in the majority of other African nations.

In line with the general trend in African countries, Togo’s criminal actors score is notably higher than its criminal markets score. Although no criminal market in Togo exerts a severe impact on society, there are nevertheless only two criminal markets that have a non-existent to minimal impact in the country. The criminal market that is most pervasive in the West African nation is the illicit fauna market, due to Togo’s prominent role as a transit country for the illegal trade in pangolin scales and elephant ivory. Furthermore, Togo acts as a transit country for cannabis and the increase in consumption of the drug in recent years is a worrying sign. Criminal networks, state-embedded actors and foreign criminal actors all have a severe influence in the country. These criminal actors are involved in a range of illicit markets, from drug trafficking to money laundering, and their activity is often aided by high levels of government corruption. In terms of resilience, Togo performed better than the African average, ranking 23rd. Although the government has made commitments to fighting organised crime, the effectiveness and sincerity of these measures remain to be proven. Lack of enforcement of laws, a culture of impunity and corruption, and porous borders were all noted as concerns by experts.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.