Southern Africa
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Southern Africa

Population

173,613,198

Area

5,247,721 km²

GDP total

$515,289.08 million

Countries

Botswana, Comoros, eSwatini, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

4.44

Criminality Score

5th of 5 African regions

Criminal market

4.05

Human Trafficking

4.08

Human Smuggling

3.12

Arms Trafficking

3.88

Flora Crimes

4.19

Fauna Crimes

5.69

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

4.46

Heroin Trade

4.88

Cocaine Trade

2.50

Cannabis Trade

4.19

Synthetic Drugs Trade

3.54

Criminal Actors

4.82

Mafia-Style Groups

2.62

Criminal Networks

5.12

State-Embedded Actors

5.65

Foreign Actors

5.88

4.27

State Resilience Score

1st of 5 African regions

Political Leadership and Governance

4.62

Government Transparency and Accountability

4.12

International Cooperation

4.50

National Policies and Laws

5.38

Judicial System and Detention

4.27

Law Enforcement

4.35

Territorial Integrity

4.42

Anti-Money Laundering

4.46

Economic Regulatory Environment

4.31

Victim and Witness Support

2.77

Prevention

2.88

Non-State Actors

5.12

4.27 4.82 4.05 4.27 4.82 4.05

Southern Africa, comprising 13 countries, was found to be the lowest-scoring region in Africa for criminality, with the regional averages for criminality (4.44), criminal markets (4.05) and criminal actors (4.82) the lowest of the five regions.

Just as the region is the best-performing region with regards to criminality, Southern Africa also has the highest average resilience score on the continent.

Ghana

Capital

Accra

Population

29,767,108

Area

227,540 km²

Coastline Length

539 km

Landborder Length

2,420 km

GDP total

$65,556.46 million

GDP per capita

$2,202.31

GINI Index

43.5

4.89

Criminality Score

26th of 54 African countries

10th of 15 West Africa countries

Criminal market

5.15

Human Trafficking

4.00

Human Smuggling

4.50

Arms Trafficking

3.00

Flora Crimes

4.50

Fauna Crimes

4.00

Non-Renewable Resources Crimes

7.50

Heroin Trade

6.00

Cocaine Trade

5.50

Cannabis Trade

7.00

Synthetic Drugs Trade

5.50

Criminal Actors

4.63

Mafia-Style Groups

1.00

Criminal Networks

6.00

State-Embedded Actors

6.50

Foreign Actors

5.00

5.46

State Resilience Score

10th of 54 African countries

4th of 15 West Africa countries

Political Leadership and Governance

6.00

Government Transparency and Accountability

5.00

International Cooperation

6.00

National Policies and Laws

5.50

Judicial System and Detention

5.00

Law Enforcement

6.00

Territorial Integrity

6.00

Anti-Money Laundering

6.00

Economic Regulatory Environment

6.50

Victim and Witness Support

3.00

Prevention

4.00

Non-State Actors

6.50

5.46 4.63 5.15 5.46 4.63 5.15

While Ghana is ranked 26th in the Index for criminality, with a score below the continental average, it ranks 16th for criminal markets, indicating several pervasive markets.

Of particular concern are the drugs markets, where the heroin trade and – to an even greater degree – the cannabis trade are considered to have a significant negative influence on society. The cocaine trade and synthetic drugs trade are also growing. However, the highest-scoring criminal market in Ghana is non-renewable resource crimes, with widespread reports of criminally controlled mining operations for gold and other precious metals and stones, which all have a detrimental impact on the environment and wider society. Experts note that criminal networks work across these markets but are often embedded within legitimate networks, making it harder to differentiate between the two. Ghana ranks 10th for overall resilience, having sufficiently effective capacity to combat organised crime and for its efforts to maintain territorial integrity. However, experts note improvements are needed in organised crime prevention measures and to significantly bolster support for victims and witnesses of organised crime.

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The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size and the criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10. The resilience score is represented by the panel height, which can be identified by the side of the panel.